Дайте определение слову пословицы

Изд.: Ил­лю­ст­ров И. И. Жизнь рус­ско­го на­ро­да в его по­сло­ви­цах и по­го­вор­ках. 3-е изд. М., 1915; Сне­ги­рев И. М. Рус­ские на­род­ные по­сло­ви­цы и прит­чи. М., 1948. М., 2010; Даль В. И. По­сло­ви­цы рус­ско­го на­ро­да. М., 1957. СПб., 2012; Рыб­ни­ко­ва М. А. Рус­ские по­сло­ви­цы и по­го­вор­ки. М., 1961; Сло­варь рус­ских по­сло­виц и по­го­во­рок / Сост. В. П. Жа­ров. 14-е изд. М., 2010; По­сло­ви­цы и по­го­вор­ки на­ро­дов Вос­то­ка / Под ред. Г. Л. Пер­мя­ко­ва. 3-е изд. М., 2011.

Лит.: Пер­мя­ков Г. Л. От по­го­вор­ки до сказ­ки: (За­мет­ки по об­щей тео­рии кли­ше). М., 1970; он же. Ос­но­вы струк­тур­ной па­ре­мио­ло­гии. М., 1988; Па­ре­мио­ло­ги­че­ский сбор­ник. М., 1978; Тар­ла­нов З. К. Рус­ские по­сло­ви­цы: Син­так­сис и по­эти­ка. Пет­ро­за­водск, 1999; По­теб­ня А. А. Из лек­ций по тео­рии сло­вес­но­сти: Бас­ня, по­сло­ви­ца, по­го­вор­ка. 5-е изд. М., 2012.

Not to be confused with pro-verb.

A proverb (from Latin: proverbium) is a simple, traditional saying that expresses a perceived truth based on common sense or experience. Proverbs are often metaphorical and use formulaic language. A proverbial phrase or a proverbial expression is a type of a conventional saying similar to proverbs and transmitted by oral tradition. The difference is that a proverb is a fixed expression, while a proverbial phrase permits alterations to fit the grammar of the context.[1][2] Collectively, they form a genre of folklore.

Some proverbs exist in more than one language because people borrow them from languages and cultures with which they are in contact. In the West, the Bible (including, but not limited to the Book of Proverbs) and medieval Latin (aided by the work of Erasmus) have played a considerable role in distributing proverbs. Not all Biblical proverbs, however, were distributed to the same extent: one scholar has gathered evidence to show that cultures in which the Bible is the major spiritual book contain «between three hundred and five hundred proverbs that stem from the Bible,»[3] whereas another shows that, of the 106 most common and widespread proverbs across Europe, 11 are from the Bible.[4] However, almost every culture has its own unique proverbs.


Lord John Russell (c. 1850) observed poetically that a «proverb is the wit of one, and the wisdom of many.»[5] But giving the word «proverb» the sort of definition theorists need has proven to be a difficult task, and although scholars often quote Archer Taylor’s argument that formulating a scientific «definition of a proverb is too difficult to repay the undertaking… An incommunicable quality tells us this sentence is proverbial and that one is not. Hence no definition will enable us to identify positively a sentence as proverbial,»[6] many students of proverbs have attempted to itemize their essential characteristics.

More constructively, Mieder has proposed the following definition, «A proverb is a short, generally known sentence of the folk which contains wisdom, truth, morals, and traditional views in a metaphorical, fixed, and memorizable form and which is handed down from generation to generation».[7] To distinguish proverbs from idioms, cliches, etc., Norrick created a table of distinctive features, an abstract tool originally developed for linguistics.[8] Prahlad distinguishes proverbs from some other, closely related types of sayings, «True proverbs must further be distinguished from other types of proverbial speech, e.g. proverbial phrases, Wellerisms, maxims, quotations, and proverbial comparisons.»[9] Based on Persian proverbs, Zolfaghari and Ameri propose the following definition: «A proverb is a short sentence, which is well-known and at times rhythmic, including advice, sage themes and ethnic experiences, comprising simile, metaphor or irony which is well-known among people for its fluent wording, clarity of expression, simplicity, expansiveness and generality and is used either with or without change.»[10]

There are many sayings in English that are commonly referred to as «proverbs», such as weather sayings. Alan Dundes, however, rejects including such sayings among truly proverbs: «Are weather proverbs proverbs? I would say emphatically ‘No!'»[11] The definition of «proverb» has also changed over the years. For example, the following was labeled «A Yorkshire proverb» in 1883, but would not be categorized as a proverb by most today, «as throng as Throp’s wife when she hanged herself with a dish-cloth».[12] The changing of the definition of «proverb» is also noted in Turkish.[13]

In other languages and cultures, the definition of «proverb» also differs from English. In the Chumburung language of Ghana, «aŋase are literal proverbs and akpare are metaphoric ones».[14] Among the Bini of Nigeria, there are three words that are used to translate «proverb»: ere, ivbe, and itan. The first relates to historical events, the second relates to current events, and the third was «linguistic ornamentation in formal discourse».[15] Among the Balochi of Pakistan and Afghanistan, there is a word batal for ordinary proverbs and bassīttuks for «proverbs with background stories».[16]

There are also language communities that combine proverbs and riddles in some sayings, leading some scholars to create the label «proverb riddles».[17][18][19]

Another similar construction is an idiomatic phrase. Sometimes it is difficult to draw a distinction between idiomatic phrase and proverbial expression. In both of them the meaning does not immediately follow from the phrase. The difference is that an idiomatic phrase involves figurative language in its components, while in a proverbial phrase the figurative meaning is the extension of its literal meaning. Some experts classify proverbs and proverbial phrases as types of idioms.[20]


From the French proverbial phrase «Je me mêle des oies ferrées» – «I concern myself/meddle with shoeing geese.» From a misericord at the Abbey of Saint Martin aux Bois (Oise), France
«Pearls before Swine», Latin proverb on platter at the Louvre
  • A dog is a man’s best friend.
  • All that glitters is not gold
  • A little learning is a dangerous thing
  • A rolling stone gathers no moss.
  • A stitch in time saves nine
  • An apple a day keeps the doctor away
  • Don’t cross the bridge until you come to it
  • Don’t count your chickens before they hatch
  • Don’t put all your eggs in one basket
  • Fortune favours the bold
  • Garbage in, garbage out
  • Haste makes waste
  • If the shoe fits, wear it!
  • Ignorance is bliss
  • It ain’t over till the fat lady sings
  • On the Internet, nobody knows you’re a dog
  • The enemy of my enemy is my friend
  • Those who live in glass houses should not throw stones.
  • With great power comes great responsibility
  • You can’t have your cake and eat it
  • Your mileage may vary


«Who will bell the cat?», comes from the end of a story.

Proverbs come from a variety of sources.[21] Some are, indeed, the result of people pondering and crafting language, such as some by Confucius, Plato, Baltasar Gracián, etc. Others are taken from such diverse sources as poetry,[22] stories,[23] songs, commercials, advertisements, movies, literature, etc.[24] A number of the well known sayings of Jesus, Shakespeare, and others have become proverbs, though they were original at the time of their creation, and many of these sayings were not seen as proverbs when they were first coined. Many proverbs are also based on stories, often the end of a story. For example, the proverb «Who will bell the cat?» is from the end of a story about the mice planning how to be safe from the cat.[25]

Some authors have created proverbs in their writings, such as J.R.R. Tolkien,[26][27] and some of these proverbs have made their way into broader society. Similarly, C. S. Lewis is credited for a proverb regarding a lobster in a pot, which he wrote about in his book series Chronicles of Narnia.[28] In cases like this, deliberately created proverbs for fictional societies have become proverbs in real societies. In a fictional story set in a real society, the movie Forrest Gump introduced «Life is like a box of chocolates» into broad society.[29] In at least one case, it appears that a proverb deliberately created by one writer has been naively picked up and used by another who assumed it to be an established Chinese proverb, Ford Madox Ford having picked up a proverb from Ernest Bramah, «It would be hypocrisy to seek for the person of the Sacred Emperor in a Low Tea House.»[30]

The proverb with «a longer history than any other recorded proverb in the world», going back to «around 1800 BC»[31] is in a Sumerian clay tablet, «The bitch by her acting too hastily brought forth the blind».[32][33] Though many proverbs are ancient, they were all newly created at some point by somebody. Sometimes it is easy to detect that a proverb is newly coined by a reference to something recent, such as the Haitian proverb «The fish that is being microwaved doesn’t fear the lightning».[34] Similarly, there is a recent Maltese proverb, wil-muturi, ferh u duluri «Women and motorcycles are joys and griefs»; the proverb is clearly new, but still formed as a traditional style couplet with rhyme.[35] Also, there is a proverb in the Kafa language of Ethiopia that refers to the forced military conscription of the 1980s, «…the one who hid himself lived to have children.»[36] A Mongolian proverb also shows evidence of recent origin, «A beggar who sits on gold; Foam rubber piled on edge.»[37] Another example of a proverb that is clearly recent is this from Sesotho: «A mistake goes with the printer.»[38] A political candidate in Kenya popularised a new proverb in his 1995 campaign, Chuth ber «Immediacy is best». «The proverb has since been used in other contexts to prompt quick action.»[39] Over 1,400 new English proverbs are said to have been coined and gained currency in the 20th century.[40]

This process of creating proverbs is always ongoing, so that possible new proverbs are being created constantly. Those sayings that are adopted and used by an adequate number of people become proverbs in that society.[41][42]

A rolling stone gathers no moss.


Interpreting proverbs is often complex, but is best done in a context.[43] Interpreting proverbs from other cultures is much more difficult than interpreting proverbs in one’s own culture. Even within English-speaking cultures, there is difference of opinion on how to interpret the proverb «A rolling stone gathers no moss.» Some see it as condemning a person that keeps moving, seeing moss as a positive thing, such as profit; others see the proverb as praising people that keep moving and developing, seeing moss as a negative thing, such as negative habits.[44]

Similarly, among Tajik speakers, the proverb «One hand cannot clap» has two significantly different interpretations. Most see the proverb as promoting teamwork. Others understand it to mean that an argument requires two people.[45] In an extreme example, one researcher working in Ghana found that for a single Akan proverb, twelve different interpretations were given.[46] Proverb interpretation is not automatic, even for people within a culture: Owomoyela tells of a Yoruba radio program that asked people to interpret an unfamiliar Yoruba proverb, «very few people could do so».[47] Siran found that people who had moved out of the traditional Vute-speaking area of Cameroon were not able to interpret Vute proverbs correctly, even though they still spoke Vute. Their interpretations tended to be literal.[48]

Children will sometimes interpret proverbs in a literal sense, not yet knowing how to understand the conventionalized metaphor. Interpretation of proverbs is also affected by injuries and diseases of the brain, «A hallmark of schizophrenia is impaired proverb interpretation.»[49]


Grammatical structures[edit]

Proverbs in various languages are found with a wide variety of grammatical structures.[50] In English, for example, we find the following structures (in addition to others):

  • Imperative, negative – Don’t beat a dead horse.
  • Imperative, positive – If the shoe fits, wear it!
  • Parallel phrases – Garbage in, garbage out.
  • Rhetorical question – Is the Pope Catholic?
  • Declarative sentence – Birds of a feather flock together.

However, people will often quote only a fraction of a proverb to invoke an entire proverb, e.g. «All is fair» instead of «All is fair in love and war», and «A rolling stone» for «A rolling stone gathers no moss.»

The grammar of proverbs is not always the typical grammar of the spoken language. Elements are often moved around, to achieve rhyme or focus.[51]

Another type of grammatical construction is the wellerism, a speaker and a quotation, often with an unusual circumstance, such as the following, a representative of a wellerism proverb found in many languages: «The bride couldn’t dance; she said, ‘The room floor isn’t flat.'»[52]

Another type of grammatical structure in proverbs is a short dialogue:

  • Shor/Khkas (SW Siberia): «They asked the camel, ‘Why is your neck crooked?’ The camel laughed roaringly, ‘What of me is straight?'»[53]
  • Armenian: «They asked the wine, ‘Have you built or destroyed more?’ It said, ‘I do not know of building; of destroying I know a lot.'»[54]
  • Bakgatla (a.k.a. Tswana): «The thukhui jackal said, ‘I can run fast.’ But the sands said, ‘We are wide.'» (Botswana)[55]
  • Bamana: «‘Speech, what made you good?’ ‘The way I am,’ said Speech. ‘What made you bad?’ ‘The way I am,’ said Speech.» (Mali)[56]

«The cobbler should stick to his last» in German. It is also an old proverb in English, but now «last» is no longer known to many.

Conservative language[edit]

Latin proverb over doorway in Netherlands: «No one attacks me with impunity»

Because many proverbs are both poetic and traditional, they are often passed down in fixed forms. Though spoken language may change, many proverbs are often preserved in conservative, even archaic, form. «Proverbs often contain archaic… words and structures.»[57] In English, for example, «betwixt» is not commonly used, but a form of it is still heard (or read) in the proverb «There is many a slip ‘twixt the cup and the lip.» The conservative form preserves the meter and the rhyme. This conservative nature of proverbs can result in archaic words and grammatical structures being preserved in individual proverbs, as has been widely documented, e.g. in Amharic,[58] Greek,[59] Nsenga,[60] Polish,[61] Venda,[62] Hebrew,[63] Giriama,[64] Georgian,[65] Karachay-Balkar,[66] Hausa,[67] Uzbek,[68] Budu of Congo,[69] Kazakh.[70]

In addition, proverbs may still be used in languages which were once more widely known in a society, but are now no longer so widely known. For example, English speakers use some non-English proverbs that are drawn from languages that used to be widely understood by the educated class, e.g. «C’est la vie» from French and «Carpe diem» from Latin.

Proverbs are often handed down through generations. Therefore, «many proverbs refer to old measurements, obscure professions, outdated weapons, unknown plants, animals, names, and various other traditional matters.»[71]
Therefore, it is common that they preserve words that become less common and archaic in broader society.[72][73] Archaic proverbs in solid form – such as murals, carvings, and glass – can be viewed even after the language of their form is no longer widely understood, such as an Anglo-French proverb in a stained glass window in York.[74]

Borrowing and spread[edit]

Proverbs are often and easily translated and transferred from one language into another. «There is nothing so uncertain as the derivation of proverbs, the same proverb being often found in all nations, and it is impossible to assign its paternity.»[75]

The Blind Leading the Blind by Pieter Bruegel the Elder

Proverbs are often borrowed across lines of language, religion, and even time. For example, a proverb of the approximate form «No flies enter a mouth that is shut» is currently found in Spain, France, Ethiopia, and many countries in between. It is embraced as a true local proverb in many places and should not be excluded in any collection of proverbs because it is shared by the neighbors. However, though it has gone through multiple languages and millennia, the proverb can be traced back to an ancient Babylonian proverb[76] Another example of a widely spread proverb is «A drowning person clutches at [frogs] foam», found in Peshai of Afghanistan[77] and Orma of Kenya,[78] and presumably places in between.

Proverbs about one hand clapping are common across Asia,[79] from Dari in Afghanistan[80] to Japan.[81] Some studies have been done devoted to the spread of proverbs in certain regions, such as India and her neighbors[82] and Europe.[83] An extreme example of the borrowing and spread of proverbs was the work done to create a corpus of proverbs for Esperanto, where all the proverbs were translated from other languages.[84]

It is often not possible to trace the direction of borrowing a proverb between languages. This is complicated by the fact that the borrowing may have been through plural languages. In some cases, it is possible to make a strong case for discerning the direction of the borrowing based on an artistic form of the proverb in one language, but a prosaic form in another language. For example, in Ethiopia there is a proverb «Of mothers and water, there is none evil.» It is found in Amharic, Alaaba language, and Oromo, three languages of Ethiopia:

  • Oromo: Hadhaa fi bishaan, hamaa hin qaban.
  • Amharic: Käənnatənna wəha, kəfu yälläm.
  • Alaaba: Wiihaa ʔamaataa hiilu yoosebaʔa[85]

The Oromo version uses poetic features, such as the initial ha in both clauses with the final -aa in the same word, and both clauses ending with -an. Also, both clauses are built with the vowel a in the first and last words, but the vowel i in the one syllable central word. In contrast, the Amharic and Alaaba versions of the proverb show little evidence of sound-based art.

However, not all languages have proverbs. Proverbs are (nearly) universal across Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some languages in the Pacific have them, such as Maori.[86] Other Pacific languages do not, e.g. «there are no proverbs in Kilivila» of the Trobriand Islands.[87] However, in the New World, there are almost no proverbs: «While proverbs abound in the thousands in most cultures of the world, it remains a riddle why the Native Americans have hardly any proverb tradition at all.»[88] Hakamies has examined the matter of whether proverbs are found universally, a universal genre, concluding that they are not.[89]


In conversation[edit]

Proverbs are used in conversation by adults more than children, partially because adults have learned more proverbs than children. Also, using proverbs well is a skill that is developed over years. Additionally, children have not mastered the patterns of metaphorical expression that are invoked in proverb use. Proverbs, because they are indirect, allow a speaker to disagree or give advice in a way that may be less offensive. Studying actual proverb use in conversation, however, is difficult since the researcher must wait for proverbs to happen.[90] An Ethiopian researcher, Tadesse Jaleta Jirata, made headway in such research by attending and taking notes at events where he knew proverbs were expected to be part of the conversations.[91]

In literature[edit]

Created proverb from J. R. R. Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings on a bumper sticker.

Many authors have used proverbs in their writings, for a very wide variety of literary genres: epics,[92][93][94][95] novels,[96][97] poems,[98] short stories.[99]

Probably the most famous user of proverbs in novels is J. R. R. Tolkien in his The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings series.[26][27][100][101] Herman Melville is noted for creating proverbs in Moby-Dick[102] and in his poetry.[103][104] Also, C. S. Lewis created a dozen proverbs in The Horse and His Boy,[105] and Mercedes Lackey created dozens for her invented Shin’a’in and Tale’edras cultures;[106] Lackey’s proverbs are notable in that they are reminiscent to those of Ancient Asia – e.g. «Just because you feel certain an enemy is lurking behind every bush, it doesn’t follow that you are wrong» is like to «Before telling secrets on the road, look in the bushes.» These authors are notable for not only using proverbs as integral to the development of the characters and the story line, but also for creating proverbs.[105]

Among medieval literary texts, Geoffrey Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde plays a special role because Chaucer’s usage seems to challenge the truth value of proverbs by exposing their epistemological unreliability.[107] Rabelais used proverbs to write an entire chapter of Gargantua.[108]

The patterns of using proverbs in literature can change over time. A study of «classical Chinese novels» found proverb use as frequently as one proverb every 3,500 words in the Water Margin (Shuihu zhuan) and one proverb every 4,000 words in Wen Jou-hsiang. But modern Chinese novels have fewer proverbs by far.[109]

«Hercules and the Wagoner», illustration for children’s book

Proverbs (or portions of them) have been the inspiration for titles of books: The Bigger they Come by Erle Stanley Gardner, and Birds of a Feather (several books with this title), Devil in the Details (multiple books with this title). Sometimes a title alludes to a proverb, but does not actually quote much of it, such as The Gift Horse’s Mouth by Robert Campbell. Some books or stories have titles that are twisted proverbs, anti-proverbs, such as No use dying over spilled milk,[110] When life gives you lululemons,[111] and two books titled Blessed are the Cheesemakers.[112] The twisted proverb of last title was also used in the Monty Python movie Life of Brian, where a person mishears one of Jesus Christ’s beatitudes, «I think it was ‘Blessed are the cheesemakers.'»

Some books and stories are built around a proverb. Some of Tolkien’s books have been analyzed as having «governing proverbs» where «the acton of a book turns on or fulfills a proverbial saying.»[113] Some stories have been written with a proverb overtly as an opening, such as «A stitch in time saves nine» at the beginning of «Kitty’s Class Day», one of Louisa May Alcott’s Proverb Stories. Other times, a proverb appears at the end of a story, summing up a moral to the story, frequently found in Aesop’s Fables, such as «Heaven helps those who help themselves» from Hercules and the Wagoner.[114] In a novel by the Ivorian novelist Ahmadou Kourouma, «proverbs are used to conclude each chapter».[115]

Proverbs have also been used strategically by poets.[116] Sometimes proverbs (or portions of them or anti-proverbs) are used for titles, such as «A bird in the bush» by Lord Kennet and his stepson Peter Scott and «The blind leading the blind» by Lisa Mueller. Sometimes, multiple proverbs are important parts of poems, such as Paul Muldoon’s «Symposium», which begins «You can lead a horse to water but you can’t make it hold its nose to the grindstone and hunt with the hounds. Every dog has a stitch in time…» In Finnish there are proverb poems written hundreds of years ago.[117] The Turkish poet Refiki wrote an entire poem by stringing proverbs together, which has been translated into English poetically yielding such verses as «Be watchful and be wary, / But seldom grant a boon; / The man who calls the piper / Will also call the tune.»[118] Eliza Griswold also created a poem by stringing proverbs together, Libyan proverbs translated into English.[119]

Because proverbs are familiar and often pointed, they have been used by a number of hip-hop poets. This has been true not only in the USA, birthplace of hip-hop, but also in Nigeria. Since Nigeria is so multilingual, hip-hop poets there use proverbs from various languages, mixing them in as it fits their need, sometimes translating the original. For example,

«They forget say ogbon ju agbaralo

They forget that wisdom is greater than power»[120]

Some authors have bent and twisted proverbs, creating anti-proverbs, for a variety of literary effects. For example, in the Harry Potter novels, J. K. Rowling reshapes a standard English proverb into «It’s no good crying over spilt potion» and Dumbledore advises Harry not to «count your owls before they are delivered».[121] In a slightly different use of reshaping proverbs, in the Aubrey–Maturin series of historical naval novels by Patrick O’Brian, Capt. Jack Aubrey humorously mangles and mis-splices proverbs, such as «Never count the bear’s skin before it is hatched» and «There’s a good deal to be said for making hay while the iron is hot.»[122] Earlier than O’Brian’s Aubrey, Beatrice Grimshaw also used repeated splicings of proverbs in the mouth of an eccentric marquis to create a memorable character in The Sorcerer’s Stone,[123] such as «The proof of the pudding sweeps clean» (p. 109) and «A stitch in time is as good as a mile» (p. 97).[124]

Proverb from Spiderman now in public use

Because proverbs are so much a part of the language and culture, authors have sometimes used proverbs in historical fiction effectively, but anachronistically, before the proverb was actually known. For example, the novel Ramage and the Rebels, by Dudley Pope is set in approximately 1800. Captain Ramage reminds his adversary «You are supposed to know that it is dangerous to change horses in midstream» (p. 259), with another allusion to the same proverb three pages later. However, the proverb about changing horses in midstream is reliably dated to 1864, so the proverb could not have been known or used by a character from that period.[125]

Some authors have used so many proverbs that there have been entire books written cataloging their proverb usage, such as Charles Dickens,[126] Agatha Christie,[127] George Bernard Shaw,[128] Miguel de Cervantes,[129][130] and Friedrich Nietzsche.[131]

On the non-fiction side, proverbs have also been used by authors for articles that have no connection to the study of proverbs. Some have been used as the basis for book titles, e.g. I Shop, Therefore I Am: Compulsive Buying and the Search for Self by April Lane Benson. Some proverbs been used as the basis for article titles, though often in altered form: «All our eggs in a broken basket: How the Human Terrain System is undermining sustainable military cultural competence»[132] and «Should Rolling Stones Worry About Gathering Moss?»,[133] «Between a Rock and a Soft Place»,[134] and the pair «Verbs of a feather flock together»[135] and «Verbs of a feather flock together II».[136] Proverbs have been noted as common in subtitles of articles[137] such as «Discontinued intergenerational transmission of Czech in Texas: ‘Hindsight is better than foresight’.»[138] Also, the reverse is found with a proverb (complete or partial) as the title, then an explanatory subtitle, «To Change or Not to Change Horses: The World War II Elections».[139] Many authors have cited proverbs as epigrams at the beginning of their articles, e.g. «‘If you want to dismantle a hedge, remove one thorn at a time’ Somali proverb» in an article on peacemaking in Somalia.[140] An article about research among the Māori used a Māori proverb as a title, then began the article with the Māori form of the proverb as an epigram «Set the overgrown bush alight and the new flax shoots will spring up», followed by three paragraphs about how the proverb served as a metaphor for the research and the present context.[141] A British proverb has even been used as the title for a doctoral dissertation: Where there is muck there is brass.[142] Proverbs have also been used as a framework for an article.[143]

In drama and film[edit]

Play poster from 1899.

Similarly to other forms of literature, proverbs have also been used as important units of language in drama and films. This is true from the days of classical Greek works[144] to old French[145] to Shakespeare,[146] to 19th Century Spanish,[147] 19th century Russian,[148] to today. The use of proverbs in drama and film today is still found in languages around the world, with plenty of examples from Africa,[149] including Yorùbá[150][151] and Igbo[152][153] of Nigeria.

A film that makes rich use of proverbs is Forrest Gump, known for both using and creating proverbs.[154][155] Other studies of the use of proverbs in film include work by Kevin McKenna on the Russian film Aleksandr Nevsky,[156] Haase’s study of an adaptation of Little Red Riding Hood,[157] Elias Dominguez Barajas on the film Viva Zapata!,[158] and Aboneh Ashagrie on The Athlete (a movie in Amharic about Abebe Bikila).[159]

Television programs have also been named with reference to proverbs, usually shortened, such Birds of a Feather and Diff’rent Strokes.

In the case of Forrest Gump, the screenplay by Eric Roth had more proverbs than the novel by Winston Groom, but for The Harder They Come, the reverse is true, where the novel derived from the movie by Michael Thelwell has many more proverbs than the movie.[160]

Éric Rohmer, the French film director, directed a series of films, the «Comedies and Proverbs», where each film was based on a proverb: The Aviator’s Wife, The Perfect Marriage, Pauline at the Beach, Full Moon in Paris (the film’s proverb was invented by Rohmer himself: «The one who has two wives loses his soul, the one who has two houses loses his mind.»), The Green Ray, Boyfriends and Girlfriends.[161]

Movie titles based on proverbs include Murder Will Out (1939 film), Try, Try Again, and The Harder They Fall. A twisted anti-proverb was the title for a Three Stooges film, A Bird in the Head. The title of an award-winning Turkish film, Three Monkeys, also invokes a proverb, though the title does not fully quote it.

They have also been used as the titles of plays:[162] Baby with the Bathwater by Christopher Durang, Dog Eat Dog by Mary Gallagher, and The Dog in the Manger by Charles Hale Hoyt. The use of proverbs as titles for plays is not, of course, limited to English plays: Il faut qu’une porte soit ouverte ou fermée (A door must be open or closed) by Paul de Musset. Proverbs have also been used in musical dramas, such as The Full Monty, which has been shown to use proverbs in clever ways.[163] In the lyrics for Beauty and the Beast, Gaston plays with three proverbs in sequence, «All roads lead to…/The best things in life are…/All’s well that ends with…me.»

In music[edit]

Proverbs are often poetic in and of themselves, making them ideally suited for adapting into songs. Proverbs have been used in music from opera to country to hip-hop. Proverbs have also been used in music in many languages, such as the Akan language[164] the Igede language,[165] Spanish,[166] and Igbo.[167]

The Mighty Diamonds, singers of «Proverbs»

In English the proverb (or rather the beginning of the proverb), If the shoe fits has been used as a title for three albums and five songs. Other English examples of using proverbs in music[168] include Elvis Presley’s Easy come, easy go, Harold Robe’s Never swap horses when you’re crossing a stream, Arthur Gillespie’s Absence makes the heart grow fonder, Bob Dylan’s Like a rolling stone, Cher’s Apples don’t fall far from the tree. Lynn Anderson made famous a song full of proverbs, I never promised you a rose garden (written by Joe South). In choral music, we find Michael Torke’s Proverbs for female voice and ensemble. A number of Blues musicians have also used proverbs extensively.[169][170] The frequent use of proverbs in Country music has led to published studies of proverbs in this genre.[171][172] The Reggae artist Jahdan Blakkamoore has recorded a piece titled Proverbs Remix. The opera Maldobrìe contains careful use of proverbs.[173] An extreme example of many proverbs used in composing songs is a song consisting almost entirely of proverbs performed by Bruce Springsteen, «My best was never good enough».[174] The Mighty Diamonds recorded a song called simply «Proverbs».[175]

The band Fleet Foxes used the proverb painting Netherlandish Proverbs for the cover of their album Fleet Foxes.[176]

In addition to proverbs being used in songs themselves, some rock bands have used parts of proverbs as their names, such as the Rolling Stones, Bad Company, The Mothers of Invention, Feast or Famine, and Of Mice and Men. There have been at least two groups that called themselves «The Proverbs», and there is a hip-hop performer in South Africa known as «Proverb». In addition, many albums have been named with allusions to proverbs, such as Spilt milk (a title used by Jellyfish and also Kristina Train), The more things change by Machine Head, Silk purse by Linda Ronstadt, Another day, another dollar by DJ Scream Roccett, The blind leading the naked by Violent Femmes, What’s good for the goose is good for the gander by Bobby Rush, Resistance is Futile by Steve Coleman, Murder will out by Fan the Fury. The proverb Feast or famine has been used as an album title by Chuck Ragan, Reef the Lost Cauze, Indiginus, and DaVinci. Whitehorse mixed two proverbs for the name of their album Leave no bridge unburned. The band Splinter Group released an album titled When in Rome, Eat Lions. The band Downcount used a proverb for the name of their tour, Come and take it.[177]

In visual form[edit]

Proverb on azulejo tiles in Trancoso, Portugal
The King drinks by Jacob Jordaens
Thai ceramic, illustrating «Don’t torch a stump with a hornet nest.»
Netherlandish Proverbs, 1559, with peasant scenes illustrating over 100 proverbs
Big Fish Eat Little Fish

From ancient times, people around the world have recorded proverbs in visual form. This has been done in two ways. First, proverbs have been written to be displayed, often in a decorative manner, such as on pottery, cross-stitch, murals,[178][179] kangas (East African women’s wraps),[180] quilts,[181] a stained glass window,[74] and graffiti.[182]

Secondly, proverbs have often been visually depicted in a variety of media, including paintings, etchings, and sculpture. Jakob Jordaens painted a plaque with a proverb about drunkenness above a drunk man wearing a crown, titled The King Drinks. Probably the most famous examples of depicting proverbs are the different versions of the paintings Netherlandish Proverbs by the father and son Pieter Bruegel the Elder and Pieter Brueghel the Younger, the proverbial meanings of these paintings being the subject of a 2004 conference, which led to a published volume of studies (Mieder 2004a). The same father and son also painted versions of The Blind Leading the Blind, a Biblical proverb. These and similar paintings inspired another famous painting depicting some proverbs and also idioms (leading to a series of additional paintings), such as Proverbidioms by T. E. Breitenbach. Another painting inspired by Bruegel’s work is by the Chinese artist, Ah To, who created a painting illustrating 81 Cantonese sayings.[183] Corey Barksdale has produced a book of paintings with specific proverbs and pithy quotations.[184][self-published source?] The British artist Chris Gollon has painted a major work entitled Big Fish Eat Little Fish, a title echoing Bruegel’s painting of the same name.[185]

Illustrations showing proverbs from Ben Franklin
Three wise monkeys, invoking a proverb, with no text.

Sometimes well-known proverbs are pictured on objects, without a text actually quoting the proverb, such as the three wise monkeys who remind us «Hear no evil, see no evil, speak no evil». When the proverb is well known, viewers are able to recognize the proverb and understand the image appropriately, but if viewers do not recognize the proverb, much of the effect of the image is lost. For example, there is a Japanese painting in the Bonsai museum in Saitama city that depicted flowers on a dead tree, but only when the curator learned the ancient (and no longer current) proverb «Flowers on a dead tree» did the curator understand the deeper meaning of the painting.[186] Also in Japan, an image of Mount Fuji, a hawk/falcon, and three egg plants, leads viewers to remember the proverb, «One Mt. Fuji, two falcons, three egg plants», a Hatsuyume dream predicting a long life.[187]

A study of school students found that students remembered proverbs better when there were visual representations of proverbs along with the verbal form of the proverbs.[188]

A bibliography on proverbs in visual form has been prepared by Mieder and Sobieski (1999). Interpreting visual images of proverbs is subjective, but familiarity with the depicted proverb helps.[189]

Some artists have used proverbs and anti-proverbs for titles of their paintings, alluding to a proverb rather than picturing it. For example, Vivienne LeWitt painted a piece titled «If the shoe doesn’t fit, must we change the foot?», which shows neither foot nor shoe, but a woman counting her money as she contemplates different options when buying vegetables.[190]

In 2018, 13 sculptures depicting Maltese proverbs were installed in open spaces of downtown Valletta.[191][192][193]

In cartoons[edit]

Cartoonists, both editorial and pure humorists, have often used proverbs, sometimes primarily building on the text, sometimes primarily on the situation visually, the best cartoons combining both. Not surprisingly, cartoonists often twist proverbs, such as visually depicting a proverb literally or twisting the text as an anti-proverb.[194] An example with all of these traits is a cartoon showing a waitress delivering two plates with worms on them, telling the customers, «Two early bird specials… here ya go.»[195]

The traditional Three wise monkeys were depicted in Bizarro with different labels. Instead of the negative imperatives, the one with ears covered bore the sign «See and speak evil», the one with eyes covered bore the sign «See and hear evil», etc. The caption at the bottom read «The power of positive thinking.»[196] Another cartoon showed a customer in a pharmacy telling a pharmacist, «I’ll have an ounce of prevention.»[197] The comic strip The Argyle Sweater showed an Egyptian archeologist loading a mummy on the roof of a vehicle, refusing the offer of a rope to tie it on, with the caption «A fool and his mummy are soon parted.»[198] The comic One Big Happy showed a conversation where one person repeatedly posed a part of various proverb and the other tried to complete each one, resulting in such humorous results as «Don’t change horses… unless you can lift those heavy diapers.»[199]

Editorial cartoons can use proverbs to make their points with extra force as they can invoke the wisdom of society, not just the opinion of the editors.[200] In an example that invoked a proverb only visually, when a US government agency (GSA) was caught spending money extravagantly, a cartoon showed a black pot labeled «Congress» telling a black kettle labeled «GSA», «Stop wasting the taxpayers’ money!»[201] It may have taken some readers a moment of pondering to understand it, but the impact of the message was the stronger for it.

Cartoons with proverbs are so common that Wolfgang Mieder has published a collected volume of them, many of them editorial cartoons. For example, a German editorial cartoon linked a current politician to the Nazis, showing him with a bottle of swastika-labeled wine and the caption «In vino veritas».[202]

One cartoonist very self-consciously drew and wrote cartoons based on proverbs for the University of Vermont student newspaper The Water Tower, under the title «Proverb place».[203]

Anti-proverb used in advertising Chick-Fil-A

In advertising[edit]

Anti-proverb used in advertising

Proverbs are frequently used in advertising, often in slightly modified form.[204][205][206]
Ford once advertised its Thunderbird with, «One drive is worth a thousand words» (Mieder 2004b: 84). This is doubly interesting since the underlying proverb behind this, «One picture is worth a thousand words,» was originally introduced into the English proverb repertoire in an ad for televisions (Mieder 2004b: 83).

A few of the many proverbs adapted and used in advertising include:

  • «Live by the sauce, dine by the sauce» (Buffalo Wild Wings)
  • «At D & D Dogs, you can teach an old dog new tricks» (D & D Dogs)
  • «If at first you don’t succeed, you’re using the wrong equipment» (John Deere)
  • «A pfennig saved is a pfennig earned.» (Volkswagen)
  • «Not only absence makes the heart grow fonder.» (Godiva Chocolatier)
  • «Where Hogs fly» (Grand Prairie AirHogs) baseball team
  • «Waste not. Read a lot.» (Half Price Books)

The GEICO company has created a series of television ads that are built around proverbs, such as «A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush»,[207] and «The pen is mightier than the sword»,[208] «Pigs may fly/When pigs fly»,[209] «If a tree falls in the forest…»,[210] and «Words can never hurt you».[211] Doritos made a commercial based on the proverb, «When pigs fly.»[212] Many advertisements that use proverbs shorten or amend them, such as, «Think outside the shoebox.»
Use of proverbs in advertising is not limited to the English language. Seda Başer Çoban has studied the use of proverbs in Turkish advertising.[213] Tatira has given a number of examples of proverbs used in advertising in Zimbabwe.[214] However, unlike the examples given above in English, all of which are anti-proverbs, Tatira’s examples are standard proverbs. Where the English proverbs above are meant to make a potential customer smile, in one of the Zimbabwean examples «both the content of the proverb and the fact that it is phrased as a proverb secure the idea of a secure time-honored relationship between the company and the individuals». When newer buses were imported, owners of older buses compensated by painting a traditional proverb on the sides of their buses, «Going fast does not assure safe arrival».[215]


Counter proverbs[216][edit]

There are often proverbs that contradict each other, such as «Look before you leap» and «He who hesitates is lost», or «Many hands make light work» and «Too many cooks spoil the broth». These have been labeled «counter proverbs»[217] or «antonymous proverbs».[218] Stanisław Lec observed, «Proverbs contradict each other. And that, to be sure, is folk wisdom.»[219]
When there are such counter proverbs, each can be used in its own appropriate situation, and neither is intended to be a universal truth.[220][221] Some pairs of proverbs are fully contradictory: “A messy desk is a sign of intelligence” and “A neat desk is a sign of a sick mind”.[24]

The concept of «counter proverb» is more about pairs of contradictory proverbs than about the use of proverbs to counter each other in an argument. For example, from the Tafi language of Ghana, the following pair of proverbs are counter to each other but are each used in appropriate contexts, «A co-wife who is too powerful for you, you address her as your mother» and «Do not call your mother’s co-wife your mother…»[222] In Nepali, there is a set of totally contradictory proverbs: «Religion is victorious and sin erodes» and «Religion erodes and sin is victorious».[223]
Also, the following pair are counter proverbs from the Kasena of Ghana: «It is the patient person who will milk a barren cow» and «The person who would milk a barren cow must prepare for a kick on the forehead».[224] From Lugbara language (of Uganda and Congo), there are a pair of counter proverbs: «The elephant’s tusk does not ovewhelm the elephant» and «The elephant’s tusks weigh the elephant down».[225] The two contradict each other, whether they are used in an argument or not (though indeed they were used in an argument). But the same work contains an appendix with many examples of proverbs used in arguing for contrary positions, but proverbs that are not inherently contradictory,[226] such as «One is better off with hope of a cow’s return than news of its death» countered by «If you don’t know a goat [before its death] you mock at its skin». Though this pair was used in a contradictory way in a conversation, they are not a set of «counter proverbs».[220]

Discussing counter proverbs in the Badaga language, Hockings explained that in his large collection «a few proverbs are mutually contradictory… we can be sure that the Badagas do not see the matter that way, and would explain such apparent contradictions by reasoning that proverb x is used in one context, while y is used in quite another.»[227] Comparing Korean proverbs, «when you compare two proverbs, often they will be contradictory.» They are used for «a particular situation».[228]

«Counter proverbs» are not the same as a «paradoxical proverb», a proverb that contains a seeming paradox.[229]


In many cultures, proverbs are so important and so prominent that there are proverbs about proverbs, that is, «metaproverbs». The most famous one is from Yoruba of Nigeria, «Proverbs are the horses of speech, if communication is lost we use proverbs to find it», used by Wole Soyinka in Death and the King’s Horsemen. In Mieder’s bibliography of proverb studies, there are twelve publications listed as describing metaproverbs.[230] Other metaproverbs include:

  • As a boy should resemble his father, so should the proverb fit the conversation.» (Afar, Ethiopia)[231]
  • «Proverbs are the cream of language» (Afar of Ethiopia)[232]
  • «One proverb gives rise to a point of discussion and another ends it.» (Guji Oromo & Arsi Oromo, Ethiopia)[233][234]
  • «Is proverb a child of chieftancy?» (Igala, Nigeria)[235]
  • «Whoever has seen enough of life will be able to tell a lot of proverbs.» (Igala, Nigeria)[236]
  • «Bereft of proverbs, speech flounders and falls short of its mark, whereas aided by them, communication is fleet and unerring» (Yoruba, Nigeria)[237]
  • «A conversation without proverbs is like stew without salt.» (Oromo, Ethiopia)[238]
  • «If you never offer your uncle palmwine, you’ll not learn many proverbs.» (Yoruba, Nigeria)[239]
  • «If a proverb has no bearing on a proverb, one does not use it.»[240] (Yoruba, Nigeria)
  • «Proverbs finish the problem.»[241] (Alaaba, Ethiopia)
  • «When a proverb about a ragged basket is mentioned, the person who is skinny knows that he/she is the person alluded to.» (Igbo, Nigeria)[242]
  • «A proverb is the quintessentially active bit of language.» (Turkish)[243]
  • «The purest water is spring water, the most concise speech is proverb.» (Zhuang, China)[244]
  • «A proverb does not lie.» (Arabic of Cairo)[245]
  • «A saying is a flower, a proverb is a berry.» (Russian)[246]
  • «Honey is sweet to the mouth; proverb is music to the ear.» (Tibetan) [247]
  • «Old proverb are little Gospels» (Galician)[248]
  • «Proverb[-using] man, queer and vulgar/bothering man» (Spanish)[249]
  • «A hasty man talks without using a proverb.» (Kambaata, Ethiopia) [250]
  • «He who has a father knows the proverb of grandfather.» (Kirundi, Burundi) [251]
  • «The wisdom of the proverb cannot be surpassed.» (Turkish, Turkey) [252]
  • “Where there is rhythm and alliteration, there lies a proverb.” (Gujerati, India)[253]
  • «Proverbs are in the heart, light rain is in the clouds.» (Mongolian)[254]
  • «For a person who knows crying, don’t tell him proverbs.»[255](Nzima language, Ghana)
  • «When my proverbs finish, that is when my talking will finish.» (Igbo, Nigeria)[256]


Blood chit used by WWII US pilots fighting in China, in case they were shot down by the Japanese. This leaflet to the Chinese depicts an American aviator being carried by two Chinese civilians. Text is «Plant melons and harvest melons, plant peas and harvest peas,» a Chinese proverb equivalent to «You Sow, So Shall You Reap».
Billboard outside defense plant during WWII, invoking the proverb of the three wise monkeys to urge security.
Wordless depiction of «Big fish eat little fish», Buenos Aires, urging, «Don’t panic, organize.»

There is a growing interest in deliberately using proverbs to achieve goals, usually to support and promote changes in society. Proverbs have also been used for public health promotion, such as promoting breast feeding with a shawl bearing a Swahili proverb «Mother’s milk is sweet».[257] Proverbs have also been applied for helping people manage diabetes,[258] to combat prostitution,[259] and for community development,[260] to resolve conflicts,[261][262] and to slow the transmission of HIV.[263]

The most active field deliberately using proverbs is Christian ministry, where Joseph G. Healey and others have deliberately worked to catalyze the collection of proverbs from smaller languages and the application of them in a wide variety of church-related ministries, resulting in publications of collections[264] and applications.[265][266] This attention to proverbs by those in Christian ministries is not new, many pioneering proverb collections having been collected and published by Christian workers.[267][268][269][270]

U.S. Navy Captain Edward Zellem pioneered the use of Afghan proverbs as a positive relationship-building tool during the war in Afghanistan, and in 2012 he published two bilingual collections[271][272] of Afghan proverbs in Dari and English, part of an effort of nationbuilding, followed by a volume of Pashto proverbs in 2014.[273]

Cultural values[edit]

Chinese proverb. It says, «Learn till old, live till old, and there is still three-tenths not learned,» meaning that no matter how old you are, there is still more learning or studying left to do.
Thai proverb depicted visually at a temple, «Better a monk»

There is a longstanding debate among proverb scholars as to whether the cultural values of specific language communities are reflected (to varying degree) in their proverbs. Many claim that the proverbs of a particular culture reflect the values of that specific culture, at least to some degree. Many writers have asserted that the proverbs of their cultures reflect their culture and values; this can be seen in such titles as the following: An introduction to Kasena society and culture through their proverbs,[274] Prejudice, power, and poverty in Haiti: a study of a nation’s culture as seen through its proverbs,[275] Proverbiality and worldview in Maltese and Arabic proverbs,[276] Fatalistic traits in Finnish proverbs,[277] Vietnamese cultural patterns and values as expressed in proverbs,[278] The Wisdom and Philosophy of the Gikuyu proverbs: The Kihooto worldview,[279] Spanish Grammar and Culture through Proverbs,[280] and «How Russian Proverbs Present the Russian National Character».[281] Kohistani has written a thesis to show how understanding Afghan Dari proverbs will help Europeans understand Afghan culture.[282]

However, a number of scholars argue that such claims are not valid. They have used a variety of arguments. Grauberg argues that since many proverbs are so widely circulated they are reflections of broad human experience, not any one culture’s unique viewpoint.[283] Related to this line of argument, from a collection of 199 American proverbs, Jente showed that only 10 were coined in the USA, so that most of these proverbs would not reflect uniquely American values.[284] Giving another line of reasoning that proverbs should not be trusted as a simplistic guide to cultural values, Mieder once observed «proverbs come and go, that is, antiquated proverbs with messages and images we no longer relate to are dropped from our proverb repertoire, while new proverbs are created to reflect the mores and values of our time»,[285] so old proverbs still in circulation might reflect past values of a culture more than its current values. Also, within any language’s proverb repertoire, there may be «counter proverbs», proverbs that contradict each other on the surface[217] (see section above). When examining such counter proverbs, it is difficult to discern an underlying cultural value. With so many barriers to a simple calculation of values directly from proverbs, some feel «one cannot draw conclusions about values of speakers simply from the texts of proverbs».[286]

Many outsiders have studied proverbs to discern and understand cultural values and world view of cultural communities.[287] These outsider scholars are confident that they have gained insights into the local cultures by studying proverbs, but this is not universally accepted.[284][288][289][290]

Seeking empirical evidence to evaluate the question of whether proverbs reflect a culture’s values, some have counted the proverbs that support various values. For example, Moon lists what he sees as the top ten core cultural values of the Builsa society of Ghana, as exemplified by proverbs. He found that 18% of the proverbs he analyzed supported the value of being a member of the community, rather than being independent.[293] This was corroboration to other evidence that collective community membership is an important value among the Builsa. In studying Tajik proverbs, Bell notes that the proverbs in his corpus «Consistently illustrate Tajik values» and «The most often observed proverbs reflect the focal and specific values» discerned in the thesis.[294]

A study of English proverbs created since 1900 showed in the 1960s a sudden and significant increase in proverbs that reflected more casual attitudes toward sex.[295] Since the 1960s was also the decade of the Sexual revolution, this shows a strong statistical link between the changed values of the decades and a change in the proverbs coined and used. Another study mining the same volume counted Anglo-American proverbs about religion to show that proverbs indicate attitudes toward religion are going downhill.[296]

There are many examples where cultural values have been explained and illustrated by proverbs. For example, from India, the concept that birth determines one’s nature «is illustrated in the oft-repeated proverb: there can be no friendship between grass-eaters and meat-eaters, between a food and its eater».[297] Proverbs have been used to explain and illustrate the Fulani cultural value of pulaaku.[298] But using proverbs to illustrate a cultural value is not the same as using a collection of proverbs to discern cultural values. In a comparative study between Spanish and Jordanian proverbs it is defined the social imagination for the mother as an archetype in the context of role transformation and in contrast with the roles of husband, son and brother, in two societies which might be occasionally associated with sexist and /or rural ideologies.[299]

Some scholars have adopted a cautious approach, acknowledging at least a genuine, though limited, link between cultural values and proverbs: «The cultural portrait painted by proverbs may be fragmented, contradictory, or otherwise at variance with reality… but must be regarded not as accurate renderings but rather as tantalizing shadows of the culture which spawned them.»[300] There is not yet agreement on the issue of whether, and how much, cultural values are reflected in a culture’s proverbs.

It is clear that the Soviet Union believed that proverbs had a direct link to the values of a culture, as they used them to try to create changes in the values of cultures within their sphere of domination. Sometimes they took old Russian proverbs and altered them into socialist forms.[301] These new proverbs promoted Socialism and its attendant values, such as atheism and collectivism, e.g. «Bread is given to us not by Christ, but by machines and collective farms» and «A good harvest is had only by a collective farm.» They did not limit their efforts to Russian, but also produced «newly coined proverbs that conformed to socialist thought» in Tajik and other languages of the USSR.[302]

Scroll of the Biblical Book of Proverbs


Many proverbs from around the world address matters of ethics and expected of behavior. Therefore, it is not surprising that proverbs are often important texts in religions. The most obvious example is the Book of Proverbs in the Bible. Additional proverbs have also been coined to support religious values, such as the following from Dari of Afghanistan:[303] «In childhood you’re playful, In youth you’re lustful, In old age you’re feeble, So when will you before God be worshipful?»

Clearly proverbs in religion are not limited to monotheists; among the Badagas of India (Sahivite Hindus), there is a traditional proverb «Catch hold of and join with the man who has placed sacred ash [on himself].»[304] Proverbs are widely associated with large religions that draw from sacred books, but they are also used for religious purposes among groups with their own traditional religions, such as the Guji Oromo.[91] The broadest comparative study of proverbs across religions is The eleven religions and their proverbial lore, a comparative study. A reference book to the eleven surviving major religions of the world by Selwyn Gurney Champion, from 1945. Some sayings from sacred books also become proverbs, even if they were not obviously proverbs in the original passage of the sacred book.[305] For example, many quote «Be sure your sin will find you out» as a proverb from the Bible, but there is no evidence it was proverbial in its original usage (Numbers 32:23).

Not all religious references in proverbs are positive. Some are cynical, such as the Tajik and Uzbek proverb, «Do as the mullah says, not as he does.»[306][307] An Indian proverb is cynical about devotees of Hinduism: «[Only] When in distress, a man calls on Rama».[308] In the context of Tibetan Buddhism, some Ladakhi proverbs mock the lamas, e.g. «If the lama’s own head does not come out cleanly, how will he do the drawing upwards of the dead?… used for deriding the immoral life of the lamas.»[309] There is an Italian proverb that mocks churches, «One barrel of wine can work more miracles than a church full of saints». There are so many Spanish proverbs mocking Catholic clergy that there is even a book of them, Refranero Anticlerical.[310] Armenians have a proverb that mocks priests, «Outside a priest, inside a beast.»[311]

Proverbs do not have to explicitly mention religion or religious figures to be used to mock a religion, seen in the fact that in a collection of 555 proverbs from the Lur, a Muslim group in Iran, the explanations for 15 of them use illustrations that mock Muslim clerics.[312]

Dammann wrote, «In the [African] traditional religions, specific religious ideas recede into the background… The influence of Islam manifests itself in African proverbs… Christian influences, on the contrary, are rare.»[313] If widely true in Africa, this is likely due to the longer presence of Islam in many parts of Africa. Reflection of Christian values is common in Amharic proverbs of Ethiopia, an area that has had a presence of Christianity for well over 1,000 years. The Islamic proverbial reproduction may also be shown in the image of some animals such as the dog. Although dog is portrayed in many European proverbs as the most faithful friend of man, it is represented in some Islamic countries as impure, dirty, vile, cowardly, ungrateful and treacherous, in addition to links to negative human superstitions such as loneliness, indifference and bad luck.[314]


Though much proverb scholarship is done by literary scholars, those studying the human mind have used proverbs in a variety of studies.[315] One of the earliest studies in this field is the Proverbs Test by Gorham, developed in 1956. A similar test is being prepared in German.[316] Proverbs have been used to evaluate dementia,[317][318][319] study the cognitive development of children,[320] measure the results of brain injuries,[321] and study how the mind processes figurative language.[49][322][323]


A sample of books used in the study of proverbs.

The study of proverbs is called paremiology which has a variety of uses in the study of such topics as philosophy, linguistics, and folklore. There are several types and styles of proverbs which are analyzed within Paremiology as is the use and misuse of familiar expressions which are not strictly ‘proverbial’ in the dictionary definition of being fixed sentences

Paremiological minimum[edit]

Grigorii Permjakov[324] developed the concept of the core set of proverbs that full members of society know, what he called the «paremiological minimum» (1979). For example, an adult American is expected to be familiar with «Birds of a feather flock together», part of the American paremiological minimum. However, an average adult American is not expected to know «Fair in the cradle, foul in the saddle», an old English proverb that is not part of the current American paremiological minimum. Thinking more widely than merely proverbs, Permjakov observed «every adult Russian language speaker (over 20 years of age) knows no fewer than 800 proverbs, proverbial expressions, popular literary quotations and other forms of cliches».[325] Studies of the paremiological minimum have been done for a limited number of languages, including Ukrainian,[326] Russian,[327] Hungarian,[328][329] Czech,[330] Somali,[331] Nepali,[332] Gujarati,[333] Spanish,[334] Esperanto,[335] Polish,[336] Spanish,[337] and Croatian.[338] Two noted examples of attempts to establish a paremiological minimum in America are by Haas (2008) and Hirsch, Kett, and Trefil (1988), the latter more prescriptive than descriptive. There is not yet a recognized standard method for calculating the paremiological minimum, as seen by comparing the various efforts to establish the paremiological minimum in a number of languages.[339] «No really convincing criteria have been offered for the size of a paremiological minimum.»[340]

Sources for proverb study[edit]

A seminal work in the study of proverbs is Archer Taylor’s The Proverb (1931), later republished by Wolfgang Mieder with Taylor’s Index included (1985/1934). A good introduction to the study of proverbs is Mieder’s 2004 volume, Proverbs: A Handbook. Mieder has also published a series of bibliography volumes on proverb research, as well as a large number of articles and other books in the field. Stan Nussbaum has edited a large collection on proverbs of Africa, published on a CD, including reprints of out-of-print collections, original collections, and works on analysis, bibliography, and application of proverbs to Christian ministry (1998).[341] Paczolay has compared proverbs across Europe and published a collection of similar proverbs in 55 languages (1997). There is an academic journal of proverb study, Proverbium (ISSN 0743-782X), many back issues of which are available online.[342] A volume containing articles on a wide variety of topics touching on proverbs was edited by Mieder and Alan Dundes (1994/1981). Paremia is a Spanish-language journal on proverbs, with articles available online.[343] There are also papers on proverbs published in conference proceedings volumes from the annual Interdisciplinary Colloquium on Proverbs[344] in Tavira, Portugal. Mieder has published a two-volume International Bibliography of Paremiology and Phraseology, with a topical, language, and author index.[345] Mieder has also published a bibliography of collections of proverbs from around the world.[346] A broad introduction to proverb study, Introduction to Paremiology, edited by Hrisztalina Hrisztova-Gotthardt and Melita Aleksa Varga has been published in both hardcover and free open access, with articles by a dozen different authors.[347] In 2023, Wolfgang Mieder produced a new bibliography volume with 6,364 entries, available for free download from the Web: International Bibliography of Paremiology and Phraseology (2008-2022).[348]

Noteworthy proverb scholars (paremiologists and paremiographers)[edit]

  • Erasmus (1466–1536)

  • Juan de Mal Lara (1524–1571)

  • Bishop Samuel Ajayi Crowther (c. 1809–1891)

    Bishop Samuel Ajayi Crowther (c. 1809–1891)

  • Elias Lönnrot (1802–1884)

  • Samuel Adalberg (1868–1939)

  • Dimitrios Loukatos (1908–2003)

  • Wolfgang Mieder

  • Mineke Schipper

  • Galit Hasan-Rokem

  • Dora Sakayan

  • Gotzon Garate Goihartzun

  • Joe Healey

  • Andrzej Halemba

The study of proverbs has been built by a number of notable scholars and contributors. Earlier scholars were more concerned with collecting than analyzing. Desiderius Erasmus was a Latin scholar (1466–1536), whose collection of Latin proverbs, known as Adagia, spread Latin proverbs across Europe.[349] Juan de Mal Lara was a 16th century Spanish scholar, one of his books being 1568 Philosophia vulgar, the first part of which contains one thousand and one sayings. Hernán Núñez published a collection of Spanish proverbs (1555).

In the 19th century, a growing number of scholars published collections of proverbs, such as Samuel Adalberg who published collections of Yiddish proverbs (1888 & 1890) and Polish proverbs (1889–1894). Samuel Ajayi Crowther, the Anglican bishop in Nigeria, published a collection of Yoruba proverbs (1852). Elias Lönnrot published a collection of Finnish proverbs (1842).

From the 20th century onwards, proverb scholars were involved in not only collecting proverbs, but also analyzing and comparing proverbs. Alan Dundes was a 20th century American folklorist whose scholarly output on proverbs led Wolfgang Mieder to refer to him as a «pioneering paremiologist».[350] Matti Kuusi was a 20th century Finnish paremiologist, the creator of the Matti Kuusi international type system of proverbs.[351] With encouragement from Archer Taylor,[352] he founded the journal Proverbium: Bulletin d’Information sur les Recherches Parémiologiques, published from 1965 to 1975 by the Society for Finnish Literature, which was later restarted as an annual volume, Proverbium: International Yearbook of Proverb Scholarship. Archer Taylor was a 20th century American scholar, best known for his «magisterial»[353] book The Proverb.[354] Dimitrios Loukatos was a 20th century Greek proverb scholar, author of such works as Aetiological Tales of Modern Greek Proverbs.[355] Arvo Krikmann (1939–2017) was an Estonian proverb scholar, whom Wolfgang Mieder called «one of the leading paremiologists in the world»[356] and «master folklorist and paremiologist».[357] Elisabeth Piirainen was a German scholar with 50 proverb-related publications.[358]

Current proverb scholars have continued the trend to be involved in analysis as well as collection of proverbs. Claude Buridant is a 20th century French scholar whose work has concentrated on Romance languages.[359] Galit Hasan-Rokem is an Israeli scholar, associate editor of Proverbium: The yearbook of international proverb scholarship, since 1984. She has written on proverbs in Jewish traditions.[360] Joseph G. Healey is an American Catholic missionary in Kenya who has led a movement to sponsor African proverb scholars to collect proverbs from their own language communities.[361] This led Wolfgang Mieder to dedicate the «International Bibliography of New and Reprinted Proverb Collections» section of Proverbium 32 to Healey.[362] Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett is a scholar of Jewish history and folklore, including proverbs.[363] Wolfgang Mieder is a German-born proverb scholar who has worked his entire academic career in the US. He is the editor of ‘’Proverbium’’ and the author of the two volume International Bibliography of Paremiology and Phraseology.[364] He has been honored by four festschrift publications.[365][366][367][368] He has also been recognized by biographical publications that focused on his scholarship.[369][370] Dora Sakayan is a scholar who has written about German and Armenian studies, including Armenian Proverbs: A Paremiological Study with an Anthology of 2,500 Armenian Folk Sayings Selected and Translated into English.[371] An extensive introduction addresses the language and structure,[372] as well as the origin of Armenian proverbs (international, borrowed and specifically Armenian proverbs). Mineke Schipper is a Dutch scholar, best known for her book of worldwide proverbs about women, Never Marry a Woman with Big Feet – Women in Proverbs from Around the World.[373] Edward Zellem is an American proverb scholar who has edited books of Afghan proverbs, developed a method of collecting proverbs via the Web.[374]

See also[edit]

  • Anti-proverb – Transformation of a standard proverb for humorous effect
  • Aphorism – Figure of speech
  • Blason Populaire – Any item of any genre which makes use of stereotypes of a particular group
  • Book of proverbs – Book of the Bible
  • Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and Fable – Reference work containing definitions and explanations of phrases, allusions and figures
  • Brocard (law) – Legal principle expressed in Latin
  • Legal maxim – Established principle of law
  • List of proverbial phrases
  • Maxim – Rule or Guideline for Action
  • Old wives’ tale – Supposed truth that is actually spurious or a superstition
  • Paremiology – Collection and study of proverbs
  • Paremiography – Study of the collection and writing of proverbs
  • Platitude – Trite, prosaic, or cliché truism
  • Proverbial phrase – Short traditional saying that expresses a perceived truth
  • Proverbium – US periodical
  • Saying – Concise expression memorable for its meaning
  • Truthism – Group of loosely affiliated 9/11 conspiracy theorists
  • Wikiquote:English proverbs
  • Wiktionary:Proverbs


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  374. ^ Unseth, Peter. 2016. Comparing methods of collecting proverbs: Learning to value working with a community, p. 7.Comparing methods of collecting proverbs Archived 2016-08-22 at the Wayback Machine

Further reading[edit]

  • Bailey, Clinton. 2004. A Culture of Desert Survival: Bedouin Proverbs from Sinai and the Negev. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0300098440. OCLC 762594024.
  • Borajo, Daniel, Juan Rios, M. Alicia Perez, and Juan Pazos. 1990. Dominoes as a domain where to use proverbs as heuristics. Data & Knowledge Engineering 5:129–137.
  • Christy, Robert. 1887. Proverbs, Maxims and Phrases of All Ages. New York, London: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.
  • Dominguez Barajas, Elias. 2010. The function of proverbs in discourse. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3110224887. OCLC 759758090.
  • Flonta, Teodor. 1995. De Proverbio – International Journal of Proverb Studies. Hobart, Australia. Department of Modern Languages, University of Tasmania, Australia. OCLC 939086054.
  • Grzybek, Peter. «Proverb.» Simple Forms: An Encyclopaedia of Simple Text-Types in Lore and Literature, ed. Walter Koch. Bochum: Brockmeyer, 1994. 227–41. ISBN 978-3883394060. OCLC 247469217.
  • Haas, Heather. 2008. Proverb familiarity in the United States: Cross-regional comparisons of the paremiological minimum. Journal of American Folklore 121.481: pp. 319–347.
  • Harris, Richard L. (2017). Concordance to the Proverbs and Proverbial Materials in the Old Icelandic Sagas. University of Saskatchewan.
  • Hildebrandt, Ted. (2005). Proverbs: Rough and Working Bibliography. Gordon College.
  • Hirsch, E. D., Joseph Kett, Jame Trefil. 1988. The dictionary of cultural literacy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
  • Mac Coinnigh, Marcas. 2012. Syntactic Structures in Irish-Language Proverbs. Proverbium: Yearbook of International Proverb Scholarship 29, 95–136.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang. 1982. Proverbs in Nazi Germany: The Promulgation of Anti-Semitism and Stereotypes Through Folklore. The Journal of American Folklore 95, No. 378, pp. 435–464.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang. 2001. International Proverb Scholarship: An Annotated Bibliography, with supplements. New York: Garland Publishing. ISBN 978-0820457079. OCLC 916748443.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang. 1994. Wise Words. Essays on the Proverb. New York: Garland.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang. 2004a. The Netherlandish Proverbs. (Supplement series of Proverbium, 16.) Burlington: University of Vermont.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang. 2004b. Proverbs: A Handbook. (Greenwood Folklore Handbooks). Greenwood Press.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang and Alan Dundes. 1994. The wisdom of many: essays on the proverb. (Originally published in 1981 by Garland.) Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang and Anna Tothne Litovkina. 2002. Twisted Wisdom: Modern Anti-Proverbs. DeProverbio.
  • Mieder, Wolfgang and Janet Sobieski. 1999. Proverb iconography: an international bibliography. Bern: Peter Lang.
  • Mitchell, David. 2001. Go Proverbs (reprint of 1980). ISBN 0-9706193-1-6. Slate and Shell.
  • Nussbaum, Stan. 1998. The Wisdom of African Proverbs (CD-ROM). Colorado Springs: Global Mapping International.
  • Obeng, S. G. 1996. The Proverb as a Mitigating and Politeness Strategy in Akan Discourse. Anthropological Linguistics 38(3), 521–549.
  • Paczolay, Gyula. 1997. European Proverbs in 55 Languages. Veszpre’m, Hungary. ISBN 978-1875943449. OCLC 52291221.
  • Permiakov, Grigorii. 1979. From proverb to Folk-tale: Notes on the general theory of cliche. Moscow: Nauka.
  • Raymond, Joseph. 1956. Tension in proverbs: more light on international understanding. Western Folklore 15.3:153–158.
  • Speake, Jennifer, and John A. Simpson. (2015). The Oxford Dictionary of Proverbs. ISBN 9780198734901. OCLC 931789403.
  • Steen, Francis. 2000. Proverb Bibliography. CogWeb – Cognitive Cultural Studies. University of California.
  • Shapin, Steven, «Proverbial economies. How and understanding of some linguistic and social features of common sense can throw light on more prestigious bodies of knowledge, science for example». Chapter 13 (pp. 315–350) of Never Pure: Historical Studies of Science as if It Was Produced by People with Bodies, Situated in Time, Space, Culture, and Society, and Struggling for Credibility and Authority, Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010, 568 pages (ISBN 978-0-8018-9421-3). First published in the Bulletin of the History of Medicine, number 77, pp. 263–297, 2003.
  • Taylor, Archer. 1985. The Proverb and an index to «The Proverb», with an Introduction and Bibliography by Wolfgang Mieder. Bern: Peter Lang.

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to Proverbs.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Proverbs.

  • The List of World Proverbs. Grouped by proverb origin.

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Пословицы — это народная мудрость, передающаяся из поколения в поколение в форме кратких и ярких сказаний. Они отражают бытовые наблюдения, жизненные уроки и общепринятые истины. Пословицы можно использовать для выражения мысли, внесения разнообразия в разговор или иллюстрации значения определенной ситуации.

Вот несколько примеров пословиц:

1. «Всё хорошо, что хорошо кончается» — используется, когда ситуация, которая кажется плохой или сложной, в итоге заканчивается хорошо.

2. «Без труда не вытащишь и рыбку из пруда» — это говорит о том, что без работы или усилий трудно достичь чего-либо.

3. «Делу время, потехе час» — говорит о важности баланса между работой и отдыхом, а также о важности уделения время работе.

4. «Не откладывай на завтра то, что можно сделать сегодня» — призывает к активности и избеганию прокрастинации.

5. «С волками жить, по-волчьи выть» — значит, что среда и общество, в котором мы находимся, оказывает влияние на нас и наши действия.

Это обобщенные истины, которые могут применяться к многим жизненным ситуациям. Они не всегда буквально описывают действительность, но представляют собой своеобразную символику или метафору.

Значение слова «пословица»

  • ПОСЛО́ВИЦА, -ы, ж. Меткое образное изречение, обобщающее различные явления жизни и имеющее обычно назидательный смысл. [Бабушка] говорит языком преданий, сыплет пословицы, готовые сентенции старой мудрости. И. Гончаров, Обрыв. Жили [мы] согласно и очень дружно, вполне оправдывая пословицу: в тесноте, да не в обиде. Б. Полевой, Елка.

    Войти в пословицу

Источник (печатная версия): Словарь русского языка: В 4-х
т. / РАН,
Ин-т лингвистич.
исследований; Под ред. А. П. Евгеньевой. — 4-е изд., стер. — М.: Рус. яз.;
(электронная версия): Фундаментальная

  • Посло́вица — изречение в виде грамматически законченного предложения, в котором выражена народная мудрость в поучительной форме. Может иметь повествовательный («в гостях хорошо, а дома лучше») и побудительный характер («куй железо, пока горячо»).

    Пословицы, поговорки и другие малые жанры фольклора изучает паремиология.

Источник: Википедия

  • ПОСЛО’ВИЦА, ы, ж. Краткое образное законченное изречение, обычно ритмичное по форме, с назидательным смыслом. Русские пословицы лучшие и выразительнейшие из всех пословиц в мире. Достоевский.

    Войти в пословицу
    — стать общеизвестным, упоминаемым как постоянный пример, образец чего-н.
    Осел мой глупостью в пословицу вошел. Крылов.

Источник: «Толковый словарь русского языка» под редакцией Д. Н. Ушакова (1935-1940);
(электронная версия): Фундаментальная

  • посло́вица

    1. краткое образное законченное изречение, обычно ритмичное по форме, с назидательным смыслом Он ушел от меня прочь и сел в угол, а я продолжал восхищаться Вашим письмом, кроме пословиц, к которым у Вас есть слабость, как я заметил здесь еще, и не к одним пословицам, а вообще к готовым изречениям. Гончаров, «Письма», 1842–1859 г. (цитата из НКРЯ) В главе о тропах не должно гоняться за пошлыми примерами или искать их непременно в сочинениях известных писателей, но брать их преимущественно в обыкновенном, разговорном языке, в пословицах и поговорках. Белинский, «Общая риторика Н. Ф. Кошанского», 1844 г. (цитата из НКРЯ)

Источник: Викисловарь

Делаем Карту слов лучше вместе

Привет! Меня зовут Лампобот, я компьютерная программа, которая помогает делать
Карту слов. Я отлично
умею считать, но пока плохо понимаю, как устроен ваш мир. Помоги мне разобраться!

Спасибо! Я стал чуточку лучше понимать мир эмоций.

Вопрос: фактоид — это что-то нейтральное, положительное или отрицательное?

Ассоциации к слову «пословица»

Синонимы к слову «пословица»

Предложения со словом «пословица»

  • Как гласит русская пословица, слово не воробей – вырвалось, не поймаешь!
  • Старая пословица гласит, что бобовый соус, который пахнет бобовым соусом, нехорош.
  • – Да, может быть, – ответил моряк. – Но уж лучше синица в руке, чем журавль в небе, говорит пословица.
  • (все предложения)

Цитаты из русской классики со словом «пословица»

  • Представлению об отечестве соответствует представление о нравах и обычаях, об играх, песнях и плясках, о приметах и суевериях, о пословицах, поговорках, притчах и сказках и, наконец, о том неклейменом, но несомненно ходячем словаре, о котором я упоминал уже выше.
  • Оставалось последнее убежище: устные предания, народная мудрость, пословицы, поговорки. Но и тут Прудентов без труда восторжествовал.
  • Как человек, теоретически образованный, он мог делать из фактов выводы, которых не умели делать люди, подобные Марье Алексевне, не знающие ничего, кроме обыденных личных забот да ходячих афоризмов простонародной общечеловеческой мудрости: пословиц, поговорок и тому подобных старых и старинных, древних и ветхих изречений.
  • (все
    цитаты из русской классики)

Какой бывает «пословица»

Понятия со словом «пословица»

  • Посло́вица — изречение в виде грамматически законченного предложения, в котором выражена народная мудрость в поучительной форме. Может иметь повествовательный (в гостях хорошо, а дома лучше) и побудительный характер (куй железо пока горячо).

  • Азербайджанские пословицы и поговорки — меткие выражения, созданные азербайджанским народом. В кратких образных изречениях нашли отражение мировоззрение, мудрость и поэзия народа. Мысли, высказанные в них, — не умозрительные суждения, а результат проницательных наблюдений, сгусток житейского опыта сотен поколений людей. У азербайджанцев пословица называется «аталар сёзю» (азерб. atalar sözü), что означает — «слова отцов» или «слова предков». В народе пословицы обладают большим авторитетом. «С пословицей…

  • Башкирские пословицы и поговорки — мудрые, поучительные изречения, меткие выражения, созданные башкирским народом, а также переведённые из древних письменных источников и заимствованные из произведений литературы, в короткой форме выражающие мудрые мысли народов входящих в состав Республики Башкортостан.

  • (все понятия)

Афоризмы русских писателей со словом «пословица»

  • «Сила солому ломит», говорит пословица, а ум, вооруженный наукой, искусством и вековым развитием жизни, ломит и силу.
  • Множество стихов Крылова обратилось в пословицы и поговорки, которыми часто можно окончить спор и доказать свою мысль лучше, нежели какими-нибудь теоретическими доводами.
  • Удивительно ли, что стихи Грибоедова обратились в поговорки и пословицы и разнеслись между образованными людьми, по всем концам земли русской!..
  • (все афоризмы русских писателей)

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Пословицы и поговорки

Литература по теме

Посло́вицазаконченное меткое образное народное изречение, применимое к разным жизненным ситуациям и имеющее поучительный смысл. Пословицы часто бывают рифмованные. Пример: «Как аукнется, так и откликнется». Пословица, имеющая автора, именуется афоризмом.

Погово́рка – меткое образное выражение, заключающее в себе эмоциональную оценку того или иного явления. В отличие от пословицы, не является законченным выражением и не имеет поучительного смысла. Пример: «Как зеницу ока».

proverb4 - Пословицы и поговорки

Пословицы из Библии (или имеющие в ней основания)

  • Бедного обижать — себе гибели искать.
    “Не будь грабителем бедного, потому что он беден, и не притесняй несчастного у ворот, потому что Господь вступится в дело их
    и исхитит душу у грабителей их” (Притч.22:22-23).
  • Без денег сон крепче.
    “Бдительность над богатством изнуряет тело,
    и забота о нем отгоняет сон” (Сир.31:1).
  • Без терпенья нет спасенья.
    “Терпением вашим спасайте души ваши”
  • Бездна бездну призывает. Беда не приходит одна.
    Бездна бездну призывает голосом водопадов Твоих; все воды Твои и волны Твои прошли надо мною (Пс.41:8).
  • Бог дал, Бог и взял.
    “Господь дал. Господь и взял”
  • Бойся Бога — смерть у порога.
    “Во всех делах твоих помни о конце твоем,
    и вовек не согрешишь” (Сир.7:39).
  • Будь беден, да честен.
    “Лучше бедный, ходящий в своей непорочности, нежели тот,
    кто извращает пути свои, хотя он и богат” (Притч.28:6).
  • В долг взять — себя продать.
    “Богатый господствует над бедным,
    и должник делается рабом заимодавца” (Притч.22:7).
  • Вера и гору с места сдвинет.
    “Если вы будете иметь веру с горчичное зерно и скажете горе сей: “перейди отсюда туда”, и она перейдет; и ничего не будет невозможного для вас” (Мф.17:20).
  • Врачу́: исцелися сам.
    “Врач! исцели Самого Себя; сделай и здесь, в Твоем отечестве, то, что, мы слышали, было в Капернауме” (Лк.4:23).
  • Возносясь смирись, а смиряясь вознесешься.
    “И славе предшествует смирение”
  • Все в мире творится не нашим умом, а Божьим судом.
    “Тогда я увидел все дела Божии и нашел,
    что человек не может постигнуть дел, которые делаются под солнцем” (Еккл.8:17).
  • Все можно, да не все нужно.
    “Все мне позволительно, но не все полезно”
  • Всё тайное станет явным.
    “Ибо нет ничего тайного, что́ не сделалось бы явным, ни сокровенного, что́ не сделалось бы известным и не обнаружилось бы” (Лк.8:17).
  • Всякая неправда — грех.
    “Всякая неправда есть грех”
  • Всякое может случиться и богатый к бедному постучится.
    “Кто затыкает ухо свое от вопля бедного,
    тот и сам будет вопить, — и не будет услышан” (Притч.21:13).
  • Где работают, там густо, а в ленивом доме пусто.
    “Ленивая рука делает бедным, а рука прилежных обогащает” (Притч.10:4).
  • Гневаться гневайся, но не согрешай.
    “Гневаясь, не согрешайте”
  • Голод — лучший повар.
    “Сытая душа попирает и сот, а голодной душе все горькое сладко”
  • Голым родился, голым и умрешь.
    “Наг я вышел из чрева матери моей, наг и возвращусь”
  • Горшок котлу не товарищ.
    “Какое общение у горшка с котлом? Этот толкнет — его,
    и он разобьется” (Сир.13:3).
  • Горька работа, да сладок хлеб. Сеяшь — плачешь, жнешь — скачешь.
    “Сеявшие со слезами будут пожинать с радостью”
  • Господин гневу своему, господин всему.
    “Владеющий собою, лучше завоевателя города”
  • Денег вволю, а еще б поболе.
    “Кто любит серебро, тот не насытится серебром”
  • День меркнет ночью, а человек печалью.
    “Люби душу твою и утешай сердце твое и удаляй от себя печаль, ибо печаль многих убила, а пользы в ней нет” (Сир.30:24-25).
  • Деньгами душу не выкупишь.
    “Не поможет богатство в день гнева”
  • Деньги — вода: пришла и ушла. Деньги — пух: только дунь на них и нет.
    “Не заботься о том, чтобы нажить богатство;
    оставь такие мысли твои. Устремишь глаза твои на него, и — его уже нет; потому что оно сделает себе крылья и, как орел, улетит к небу” (Притч.23:4-5).
  • Деньги — мед, одежда — тлен, а здоровье всего дороже.
    “Здоровье и благосостояние тела дороже всякого золота,
    и крепкое тело лучше несметного богатства” (Сир.30:15).
  • Добрая слава лучше богатства.
    “Доброе имя лучше большого богатства,
    и добрая, слава лучше серебра и золота” (Притч.22:1).
  • Добро творить — себя веселить.
    “Радость человеку — благотворительность его”
  • Доброго держись, а худого сторонись.
    Уклоняйся от зла и делай добро” (Пс.33:15).
  • Доверяй, но проверяй.
    “Кто скоро доверяет, тот легкомыслен”
  • Дома и солома едома.
    “Лучше жизнь бедного под досчатым кровом,
    нежели роскошные пиршества в чужих домах” (Сир.29:25).
  • Дорога милостыня во время скудости.
    “Благовременна милость во время скорби,
    как дождевые облака во время засухи” (Сир.35:23).
  • Друг познается в беде.
    “Бывает друг в нужное для него время,
    и не останется с тобою в день скорби твоей” (Сир.6:8).
  • Друга не узнаешь в счастье, враг не скроется в несчастье.
    “Друг не познается в счастье, и враг не скроется в несчастье”
  • Железо железо острит.
    “Железо железо острит, и человек изощряет взгляд друга своего” (Притч.27:17).
  • Живи просто, доживешь лет до ста.
    “Немногим довольствуется человек благовоспитанный,
    и потому он не страдает одышкою на своем ложе” (Сир.31:21).
  • Жили люди до нас, будут жить и после.
    “Род проходит, и род приходит, а земля пребывает во веки”
  • За добро Бог плательщик.
    “Делай добро благочестивому, и получишь воздаяние, и если не от него, то от Всевышнего” (Сир.12:2).
  • За доброе жди добра, за худое — худа.
    “Скажите праведнику, что благо ему,
    ибо он будет вкушать плоды дел своих; а беззаконнику — горе, ибо будет ему возмездие за дела рук его” (Ис.3:10-11).
  • Завистливое око видит широко.
    “Что из сотворенного завистливее глаза? Потому что он плачет о всем, что видит” (Сир.31:15).
    “Кроткий язык — древо жизни, но необузданный — сокрушение духа” (Притч.15:4).
  • Завистливый, сохнет от зависти, а добрый плачет от радости.
    “Кроткое сердце — жизнь для тела,
    а зависть — гниль для костей” (Притч.14:30).
  • Заработанный ломоть лучше краденного каравая.
    “Лучше немногое с правдою, нежели множество прибытков с неправдою” (Притч.16:8).
  • Здоровье дороже богатства.
    “Нет богатства лучше телесного здоровья”
  • Золото не говорит, да много творит. Тяжело золото, а кверху тянет.
    “Не заводи тяжбы с человеком богатым, чтобы он не имел перевеса
    над тобою; ибо золото многих погубило, и склоняло сердца царей” (Сир.8:2-3).
  • Истина от земли, а правда с небес.
    “Истина возникает из земли, и правда приникнет с небес”
  • К добру мостись, а от худа пяться.
    “Уклоняйся от зла и делай добро”
  • Кесарю кесарево, а Богу Богово.
    “Говорят Ему: кесаревы. Тогда говорит им: итак, отдавайте кесарево кесарю, а Божие Богу” (Мф.22:21).
  • Как аукнется, так и откликнется.
    “Какою мерою мерите, такою же отмерится и вам”
  • Кто винцо любит, тот сам себя погубит.
    “Против вина не показывай себя храбрым, ибо многих погубило вино”
  • Кто добро творит, тому Бог отплатит.
    “Делай добро благочестивому, и получишь воздаяние, и если не от него, то от Всевышнего” (Сир.12:2).
  • Кто добро творит, тому зло не вредит.
    “Не приключится праведнику никакого зла”
  • Кто долго спит, тому денег не скопить.
    “Не люби спать, чтобы тебе не обеднеть; держи открытыми глаза твои, и будешь досыта есть хлеб” (Притч.20:13).
  • Кто к Богу, к тому и Бог.
    “Когда Господу угодны пути человека.
    Он и врагов его примиряет с ним” (Притч.16:7).
  • Кто к нам с мечом придет, тот от меча и погибнет.
    “Возврати меч твой в его место, ибо все, взявшие меч, мечом погибнут” (Мф.26:52).
  • Кто копает яму, тот упадет в нее сам.
    “Кто копает яму, тот упадет в нее” (Еккл.10:8).
  • Кто легко верит, тот легко и пропадает.
    “Не открывай всякому человеку твоего сердца, чтобы он дурно не отблагодарил тебя”
  • Кто не работает, тот не ест.
    “Кто не хочет трудиться, тот и не ешь” (2Фес.3:10).
  • Кто не с нами, тот против нас.
    “Кто не со Мною, тот против Меня; и кто не собирает со Мною, тот расточает” (Мф.12:30).
  • Кто пахать не ленится, у того и хлеб родится.
    “Кто возделывает землю свою, тот будет насыщаться хлебом,
    кто подражает праздным, тот насытится нищетою” (Притч.28:19).
  • Кто рано встает, тому Бог дает.
    “Не люби спать, чтобы тебе не обеднеть;
    держи открытыми глаза твои, и будешь досыта есть хлеб” (Притч.20:13).
  • Кто родителей почитает, того Бог не забывает.
    “Почитай отца твоего и мать твою,
    чтобы тебе было хорошо и чтобы продлились дни твои на земле” (Исх.20:12).
  • Кто сеет ветер, пожнет бурю.
    “Так как они сеяли ветер, то и пожнут бурю”
  • Лишнего пожелаешь, последнее потеряешь.
    “Спешит к богатству завистливый человек,
    и не думает, что нищета постигнет его” (Притч.28:22).
  • Лучше давать, чем брать.
    “Блаженнее давать, нежели принимать”
  • Лучше малые крохи с тихостью, чем большие куски с лихостью.
    “Лучше немногое с правдою,
    нежели множество прибытков с неправдою” (Притч.16:8).
  • Лучше ногою запнуться, нежели языком.
    “Преткновение от земли лучше, нежели от языка”
  • Лучше хлеб есть с водою, чем жить со злою женою.
    “Лучше жить в углу на кровле,
    нежели со сварливою женою в пространном доме” (Притч.25:24).
  • Лучше хлеб с водою, чем пирог с бедою.
    “Лучше кусок сухого хлеба, и с ним мир,
    нежели дом, полный заколотого скота, с раздором” (Притч.17:1).
  • Людей слушай, а свое делай.
    “Держись совета сердца твоего, ибо нет никого для тебя вернее его”
  • Межа не стена, а передвинуть нельзя.
    “Не нарушай межи ближнего твоего”
  • Меньше говорить — меньше греха.
    “Обуздывающий язык будет жить мирно,
    и ненавидящий болтливость уменьшит зло” (Сир.19:6).
  • Молчаливый дурак за умного сойдёт.
    “И глупец, когда молчит, может показаться мудрым, и затворяющий уста свои – благоразумным” (Притч.17:18).
  • Муж да жена — одна плоть.
    И навел Господь Бог на человека крепкий сон; и, когда он уснул, взял одно из ребр его, и закрыл то место плотию, и создал Господь Бог из ребра, взятого у человека, жену, и привел ее к человеку. И сказал человек: вот, это кость от костей моих и плоть от плоти моей; она будет называться женою, ибо взята от мужа своего. Потому оставит человек отца своего и мать свою и прилепится к жене своей; и будут два одна плоть (Быт.2:18, 21–25).
  • На воре шапка горит.
    “Нечестивый бежит, когда никто не гонится за ним”
  • На всякий роток не накинешь платок.
    “Не на всякое слово, которое говорят, обращай внимание” (Еккл.7:21).
  • На обеде все соседи; а пришла беда, они прочь как вода.
    “Бывает другом участник в трапезе,
    и не останется с тобою в день скорби твоей” (Сир.6:10).
  • На чужой стороне и весна не красна.
    “Как птица, покинувшая гнездо свое,
    так человек, покинувший место свое” (Притч.27:8).
  • На языке медок, а на сердце ледок.
    “Устами своими притворяется враг,
    а в сердце своем замышляет коварство” (Притч.26:24).
  • Над другим посмеешься, над собой поплачешь.
    “Кто радуется несчастью, тот не останется ненаказанным”
  • Надежный друг дороже денег.
    “Верному другу нет цены”
  • Начало премудрости — страх Господень.
    “Начало мудрости – страх Господень; разум верный у всех, исполняющих заповеди Его.” (Пс.110:10).
  • Не верь чужим речам, верь своим очам.
    “Не всякому слову верь”
  • Не всякому верь, запирай покрепче дверь.
    “Не всякого человека вводи в дом твой,
    ибо много козней у коварного” (Сир.11:29).
  • Не годы старят, а горе. Не работа старит, а забота.
    “Забота — прежде времени приводит старость”
  • Не давши слова крепись, а давши — держись.
    “Сеть для человека — поспешно давать обет, и после обета обдумывать” (Притч.20:25).
  • Не имей сто рублей, а имей сто друзей.
    “Не меняй друга на сокровище”
  • Не ищи соринку в чужом глазу.
    “И что ты смотришь на сучок в глазе брата твоего,
    а бревна в твоем глазе не чувствуешь?” (Мф.7:3).
  • Не мечите бисер (или жемчуг) перед свиньями.
    “Не давайте святыни псам и не бросайте жемчуга вашего перед свиньями” (Мф.7:6).
  • Не похваля не продашь, не похуля — не купишь.
    “Дурно, дурно”, говорит покупатель, а когда отойдет, хвалится”
  • Не радуйся чужой беде: своя на гряде.
    “Не радуйся, когда упадет враг твой,
    и да не веселится сердце твое, когда он споткнется” (Притч.24:17).
  • Не рой другому яму — сам в нее попадешь.
    “Кто роет яму, тот упадет в нее”
  • Не с поста мрут, а от обжорства.
    “От пресыщения многие умерли, а воздержный прибавит себе жизни”
  • Не смотри на старость со смехом — своя не за горами.
    “Не пренебрегай человека в старости его, ибо и мы стареем”
  • Не спеши языком, торопись делом.
    “Не будь скор языком твоим, и ленив и нерадив в делах твоих”
  • Не узнавай друга в три дня, узнай в три года.
    “Если хочешь приобрести друга, приобретай его по испытании
    и не скоро вверяйся ему” (Сир.6:7).
  • Не учил сына, пока поперек лавочки укладывался, а как во всю вытянулся — не научишь.
    “Не оставляй юноши без наказания: если накажешь его розгою,
    он не умрет; ты накажешь его розгою, и спасешь душу его от преисподней” (Притч.23:13-14).
  • Не хвали сам себя, есть получше тебя.
    “Пусть хвалит тебя другой, а не уста твои”
  • Не хлебом единым жив человек.
    “Не хлебом одним будет жить человек, но всяким словом, исходящим из уст Божиих” (Мф.4:4).
  • Невинно вино, виновато пьянство.
    “Что за жизнь без вина? оно сотворено на веселие людям.
    Отрада сердцу и утешение душе — вино, умеренно употребляемое вовремя; горесть для души — вино, когда пьют его много” (Сир.31,32-34).
  • Невозможное человеку, возможно Богу.
    “Невозможное человекам возможно Богу” (Лк.18:27).
  • Нет веры без дел добрых.
    “Вера без дел мертва”
  • Нет печали без радости, а радости без печали.
    “И при смехе иногда болит сердце,
    и концом радости бывает печаль” (Притч.14:13).
  • Нет пророка в своём отечестве.
    “Никакой пророк не принимается в своем отечестве” (Лук.4:24).
  • Новое — это хорошо забытое старое.
    “Бывает нечто, о чем говорят: «смотри, вот это новое»; но это было уже в веках, бывших прежде нас” (Еккл.1:10).
  • Один Бог без греха.
    “Нет человека праведного на земле,
    который делал бы добро и не грешил бы” (Еккл.7:20).
  • Одна рюмка на здоровье, другая на веселье, третья на вздор.
    “Вино полезно для жизни человека,
    если будешь пить его умеренно” (Сир.31:31).
  • От гнева до глупости один шаг.
    “Не будь духом твоим поспешен на гнев,
    потому что гнев гнездится в сердце глупых” (Еккл.7:9).
    “Вспыльчивый может сделать глупость” (Притч.14:17).
  • От людей утаишь, а от Бога нет. От Божьего суда не уйдешь.
    “Ибо всякое дело Бог приведет на суд,
    и все тайное, хорошо ли оно, или худо” (Еккл.12:14).
  • От одного слова, да на век ссора.
    “Начало ссоры — как прорыв воды;
    оставь ссору прежде, нежели разгорелась она” (Притч.17:14).
  • От печалей немощи, от немощей смерть.
    “Печаль мирская производит смерть”
  • От смерти не уйдешь.
    “И не будет того вовек,
    чтобы остался кто жить навсегда и не увидел могилы” (Пс.48:9-10).
  • От умного научишься, от глупого разучишься.
    “Обращающийся с мудрыми будет мудр, а кто дружит с глупыми, развратится”
  • От худого семени не жди доброго племени.
    “Всякое дерево доброе приносит и плоды добрые,
    а худое дерево приносит и плоды худые” (Мф.7:17).
  • Пирог ядучи помяни и сухую корочку. При сытости помни голод, при богатстве — убожество.
    “Во время сытости вспоминай о времени голода,
    и во дни богатства — о бедности и нужде” (Сир.18:25).
  • Повинную голову и меч не сечет.
    “Скрывающий свои преступления не будет иметь успеха; а кто сознается и оставляет их, тот будет помилован” (Притч.28:13).
  • Поганое к чистому не пристанет.
    “Для чистых все чисто”
  • Помолчи боле, поживешь доле.
    “Кто хранит уста свои, тот бережет душу свою;
    а кто широко раскрывает свой рот, тому беда” (Притч.13:3).
  • Постится щука, а пескарь не дреми.
    “Есть лукавый, который ходит согнувшись, в унынии, но внутри он полон коварства. Он поник лицом и притворяется глухим, но он предварит тебя там, где и не думаешь” (Сир.19:23-24).
  • Праведен закон, да неправеден судья.
    “А мы знаем, что закон добр,
    если кто законно употребляет его” (1Тим.1:8).
  • Прежде рассуди, а потом осуди.
    “Прежде, нежели исследуешь, не порицай;
    узнай прежде, и тогда упрекай” (Сир.11:7).
  • Придержи язык в беседе, а сердце в гневе.
    “Всякий человек да будет скор на слышание,
    медлен на слова, медлен на гнев” (Иак.1:19).
  • Просит убогий, а подаешь Богу.
    “Благотворящий бедному дает взаймы Господу,
    и Он воздаст ему за благодеяние его” (Притч.19:17).
  • Пустой спор до ссоры скор.
    “От глупых и невежественных состязаний уклоняйся,
    зная, что они рождают ссоры” (2Тим.2:23).
  • Радость прямит, кручина крючит.
    “Веселое сердце благотворно, как врачестбо,
    а унылый дух сушит кости” (Притч.17:22).
  • Редкое свидание — приятный гость. Редкому гостю — двери настежь.
    “Не учащай входить в дом друга твоего,
    чтобы он не наскучил тобою и не возненавидел тебя” (Притч.25:17).
  • С ветру пришло, на ветер и ушло. Трудовая денежка всегда крепка.
    “Богатство от суетности истощается,
    а собирающий трудами умножает его” (Притч.13:11).
  • С грехом борись, а с грешником мирись.
    “Не укоряй человека, обращающегося от греха”
  • С кем поведешься, от того и наберешься.
    “Не дружись с гневливым и не сообщайся с человеком вспыльчивым,
    чтобы не научиться путям его и не навлечь петли на душу твою” (Притч.22:24-25).
  • С сильным не борись, с богатым не тягайся.
    “Не поднимай тяжести свыше твоей силы,
    и не входи в общение с тем, кто сильнее и богаче тебя” (Сир.13:2).
  • Свинья грязи найдет.
    Но с ними случается по верной пословице: пес возвращается на свою блевотину, и: вымытая свинья идет валяться в грязи (2Пет.2:22).
  • Своя своих не познаша.
    Пришел к своим, и свои Его не приняли (Ин.1:11).
  • Сделав добро, не попрекай.
    “При благотворениях не делай упреков,
    и при всяком даре не оскорбляй словами” (Сир.18:15).
  • Сильнее себя взаймы дать — добро потерять.
    “Не давай взаймы человеку, который сильнее тебя;
    а если дашь, то считай себя потерявшим” (Сир.8:15).
  • Слово вовремя и кстати — сильнее письма и печати.
    “Радость человеку в ответе уст его, и как хорошо слово во время!”
  • Слово лечит, слово и калечит.
    “Иной пустослов уязвляет как мечом, а язык мудрых — врачует”
  • Слово не стрела, а разит.
    “Многие пали от острия меча, но не столько,
    сколько павших от языка” (Сир.28:21).
  • Смерть всех равняет.
    “И увы! мудрый умирает наравне с глупым”
  • Смех — лучшее лекарство.
    “Веселое сердце благотворно, как врачевство, а унылый дух сушит кости” (Притч.17:22).
  • Собака лает — ветер носит.
    “Не на всякое слово, которое говорят, обращай внимание”
  • Сорока на хвосте принесла.
    “Птица небесная может перенести слово твое, и крылатая – пересказать речь твою” (Еккл.10:20).
  • Спать долго, жить с долгом. Поздно встать — нужду наспать.
    “Немного поспишь, немного подремлешь,
    немного, сложив руки, полежишь: и придет, как прохожий, бедность твоя, и нужда твоя, как разбойник” (Притч.6:10-11).
  • Старый друг лучше новых двух.
    “Не оставляй старого друга, ибо новый не может сравниться с ним”
  • Тайну открыть — верность погубить.
    “Открывающий тайны потерял доверие
    и не найдет друга по душе своей” (Сир.27:16).
  • Тот не унывает, кто на Бога уповает.
    “Предай Господу дела твои,
    и предприятия твои совершатся” (Притч.16:3).
  • Труд человека кормит, а лень портит.
    “Ленивая рука делает бедным, а рука прилежных обогащает”
  • Тяжело ждать, если ничего не видать.
    “Надежда, долго не сбывающаяся, томит сердце”
  • У Бога милостей много.
    “Милости Господней полна земля”
  • У корысти всегда рожа бескорыстна.
    “Есть лукавый, который ходит согнувшись, в унынии,
    но внутри он полон коварства. Он поник лицом и притворяется глухим, но он предварит тебя там, где и не думаешь” (Сир.19:23-24).
  • У лжи короткие ноги. У вранья век короток.
    “Уста правдивые вечно прибывают,
    а лживый язык — только на мгновение” (Притч.12:19).
  • Уговор дороже денег.
    “Твердо держи слово и будь верен ему”
  • Удобнее верблюду пройти сквозь игольные уши, нежели богатому войти в Царство Божие.
    “Удобнее верблюду пройти сквозь игольные уши, нежели богатому войти в Царство Божие” (Мф.19:24).
  • Умей взять, умей и отдать. Долг платежом красен.
    “Давай взаймы ближнему во время нужды его
    и сам в свое время возвращай ближнему” (Сир.29:2).
  • Умрешь — ничего с собой не возьмешь.
    “Не бойся, когда богатеет человек, когда слава дома его умножается: ибо умирая не возьмет ничего; не пойдет за ним слава его” Пс.48:17-18).
  • Худо мужу тому, у которого жена большая в дому.
    “Досада, стыд и большой срам,
    когда жена будет преобладать над своим мужем” (Сир.25:24).
  • Худое дерево — с корнем вон.
    “Всякое дерево, не приносящее плода доброго,
    срубают и бросают в огонь” (Мф.7:19).
  • Худом добра не наживешь.
    “Не доставляют пользы сокровища неправедные”
  • Чарка да кума лишат чести и ума.
    “Вино и женщины развратят разумных”
  • Человек предполагает, а Бог располагает.
    “Много замыслов в сердце человека,
    но состоится только определенное Господом” (Притч.19:21).
  • Человек ходит, а Бог водит.
    “Сердце человека обдумывает свой путь,
    но Господь управляет шествием его” (Притч.16:9).
  • Что глаза окинут, того жаль покинуть.
    “Что из сотворенного завистливее глаза?
    Потому что он плачет о всем, что видит” (Сир.31:15).
  • Что посеешь, то и пожнешь.
    “Что посеет человек, то и пожнет”
  • Чужая душа — потемки.
    “Помыслы в сердце человека — глубокие воды”
  • Шила в мешке не утаишь.
    “Ибо нет ничего сокровенного, что не открылось бы,
    и тайного, что не было бы узнано” (Мф.10:26).
  • Я умываю руки.
    “Пилат, видя, что ничто не помогает, но смятение увеличивается, взял воды и умыл руки перед народом, и сказал: невиновен я в крови Праведника Сего; смотрите вы” (Мф.27:24).
  • Язык мой — враг мой: прежде ума рыщет, беды ищет.
    “А язык укротить никто из людей не может:
    это — неудержимое зло” (Иак.3:8).

proverb5 - Пословицы и поговорки

Поговорки из Библии (или имеющие в ней основания)

  • Бросить камень.
    Если найдется среди тебя… мужчина или женщина, кто сделает зло пред очами Господа… побей их камнями до смерти. По словам двух свидетелей, или трех свидетелей, должен умереть осуждаемый на смерть: не должно предавать смерти по словам одного свидетеля. Рука свидетелей должна быть на нем прежде всех, чтоб убить его, потом рука всего народа… (Втор.17:2–7).
  • Волки в овечьей шкуре.
    “Берегитесь лжепророков, которые приходят к вам в овечьей одежде, а внутри суть волки хищные” (Мф.7:15).
  • Время собирать камни и время разбрасывать камни
    “Время разбрасывать камни, и время собирать камни” (Еккл.3:5).
  • Глас вопиющего в пустыне.
    “Глас вопиющего в пустыне” (Мф.3:3).
  • Зарыть талант в землю.
    “Пошел и скрыл талант твой в земле” (Мф.25:25).
  • Как зеницу ока
    “Храни меня, как зеницу ока; в тени крыл Твоих укрой меня” (Пс.16:8).
  • Камень преткновения.
    “И будет Он освящением и камнем преткновения” (Ис.8:14).
  • Козёл отпущения.
    “И возложит Аарон обе руки свои на голову живого козла, и исповедает над ним все беззакония сынов Израилевых и все преступления их и все грехи их, и возложит их на голову козла, и отошлет с нарочным человеком в пустыню” (Лев.16:21).
  • Колосс на глинянных ногах.
    “Вот, какой-то большой истукан; огромный был этот истукан, в чрезвычайном блеске стоял он пред тобою, и страшен был вид его” (Дан.2:31).
  • На круги своя.
    “Идет ветер к югу, и переходит к северу, кружится, кружится на ходу своем, и возвращается ветер на круги свои” (Еккл.1:6).
  • Не лезь на рожон.
    “Трудно тебе идти против рожна”
  • Не опускайте руки.
    “И когда Моисей поднимал руки свои, одолевал Израиль, а когда опускал руки свои, одолевал Амалик, но руки Моисеевы отяжелели, и тогда взяли камень и подложили под него, и он сел на нем, Аарон же и Ор поддерживали руки его, один с одной, а другой с другой стороны. И были руки его подняты до захождения солнца” (Исх.17:11,12).
  • Не от мира сего.
    “Он сказал им: вы от нижних, Я от вышних; вы от мира сего, Я не от сего мира” (Ин.8:23).
  • Око за око.
    “Перелом за перелом, око за око, зуб за зуб; как он сделал повреждение на теле человека, так и ему должно сделать” (Лев.24:20).
  • Пройти огонь и воду.
    “Будешь ли переходить через воды, Я с тобою, – через реки ли, они не потопят тебя; пойдешь ли через огонь, не обожжешься, и пламя не опалит тебя” (Ис.43:2).
  • Соринка в глазу.
    “И что ты смотришь на сучок в глазе брата твоего, а бревна в твоем глазе не чувствуешь?” (Мф.7:3).
  • Спит сном праведника.
    “Тогда безопасно пойдешь по пути твоему, и нога твоя не споткнется. Когда ляжешь спать, – не будешь бояться; и когда уснешь, – сон твой приятен будет
    ” (Притч.3:23-24).
  • Устами младенца.
    “Иисус же говорит им: да! разве вы никогда не читали: из уст младенцев и грудных детей Ты устроил хвалу?” (Мф.21:16).

proverb6 - Пословицы и поговорки

Пословицы о духовной жизни, Боге и Церкви

  • Без Бога — не до порога!
  • Бог вымочит, Бог и высушит.
  • Бог долго ждет, да больно бьет.
  • Бог души не вынет, сама душа не выйдет.
  • Бог наставит и пастыря приставит.
  • Бог не в силе, а в правде.
  • Бог не даст — нигде не возьмешь.
  • Бог не дремлет — всё слышит.
  • Бог не как свой брат, скорее поможет.
  • Бог по силе крест налагает.
  • Бог терпел и нам велел.
  • Богу молиться — вперед пригодится.
  • Великий пост всем прижмет хвост.
  • Во время поста и пища проста.
  • Вольному воля, спасенному рай.
  • Все мы под Богом ходим.
  • Все посты постимся, а никуда не годимся!
  • Всех поминай, и тебя Господь помянет.
  • Всяк про себя, а Господь про всех.
  • Всё без меры — от дьявола.
  • Грех и беда с кем не была.
  • Даст Бог день, даст Бог и пищу.
  • День трудись, а ночь молись.
  • Для нас тогда настанет покой, когда запоют над нами “Со святыми упокой!”
  • Добрый смех — не грех!
  • Дома спасайся, а в церковь ходи!
  • Если Бог с нами, то кто против нас?
  • Если ты суров — ступай в Саров, если хочешь опыта — отправляйся в Оптину, а если ты упрям — езжай на Валаам!
  • Жить — Богу служить.
  • Заставь дурака Богу молиться он и лоб расшибет.
  • Или смолоду женись, или смолоду стригись.
  • К себе будь строг, а за другими смотрит Бог.
  • Кабы не Бог, кто бы нам помог?
  • Как тревога — так за Бога.
  • Каков поп, таков и приход.
  • Кого Бог любит, того и наказует.
  • Кому Церковь не мать, тому и Бог не отец.
  • Коротка молитва “Отче наш”, да спасает.
  • Кто без крестов (т. е. без нательного креста), тот не Христов.
  • Кто в море не ходил, тот Богу не молился!
  • Кто добро творит, того Бог благословит.
  • Кто курит табачок, не Христов мужичок.
  • Кто перекрестясь работает, тому Божья помощь.
  • Кто уступает, тот больше приобретает.
  • Лучший ответ на оскорбленье — сдержанность и терпенье!
  • Маленькая книжка, а духовно объёмиста.
  • Мир обещает злато, а даёт блато (болото).
  • Моисей терпел, Елисей терпел, терпел Илия, потерплю и я.
  • Молись втайне, воздается въяве!
  • Молитва везде действует, хотя не всегда чудодействует!
  • Молитва и труд всё перетрут.
  • Молитва — полпути к Богу.
  • На Бога надейся, а сам не плошай!
  • На дудку есть, а на свечку нет (т. е. денег).
  • На крест не просятся, с креста не сходят.
  • На тебе, Боже, что нам не гоже.
  • Не бойся никого, кроме Бога одного.
  • Не бойся сильного грозы, а бойся слабого слезы!
  • Не всякая Ксения — Петербургская, на всякий Иван — Кронштадтский.
  • Не гневи Бога ропотом, а молись Ему шепотом!
  • Не ищи красоты, а ищи доброты!
  • Не как ты хочешь, а как Бог даст!
  • Не по нашему хотенью, а по Божью изволенью.
  • Не помогут не посты, не поклоны, если не услышишь чужие стоны.
  • Не сохранит Господь града, не сохранит ни стража, ни ограда.
  • Не торопись, сперва Богу помолись!
  • Ни в какую суету не вдавайся, хлопотливых дел остерегайся!
  • Никто не может, так Бог поможет.
  • Ной не ныл и ты не ной.
  • Отчаяние лечится чаянием.
  • Отчего человек бывает плох? Оттого, что забывает, что над ним Бог.
  • Перед Богом все равны.
  • По-давидски грешим, да не по-давидски каемся.
  • Под Богом ходишь — Божью волю носишь.
  • Покрой грехи ближнего и Господь твои покроет.
  • Пост приводит к вратам рая, а милостыня отворяет их.
  • Пост — телу чистота, душе красота!
  • Постись духом, а не только брюхом!
  • С Богом хоть за море, а без Бога ни до порога.
  • С верой нигде не пропадешь.
  • С молитвой в устах, с работой в руках.
  • С поста не мрут, а с обжорства дохнут.
  • Скорбей у Бога не проси, а пошлет — терпи!
  • Славите Бога, так слава и вам!
  • Сладки грешки, да горьки корешки.
  • Смотри в себя и будет с тебя.
  • Смотри, Мелитона, держись тона: возьмешь высоко, будет нелёгко, возьмешь низко, будет склизко; а ты, Мелитона, держись среднего тона.
  • Спасается, а кусается!
  • Сытое брюхо к молитве глухо.
  • Тот ближе всех до Неба, кому в жизни меньше треба.
  • У Бога всего много.
  • У совести нет зубов, а она загрызет до смерти!
  • Унывать грешно, а скорбеть должно!
  • Церковь не в брёвнах, а рёбрах.
  • Человек гадает, а Бог совершает.
  • Чем грешим, тем и наказываемся.
  • Что Богу не угодно, то и не годно.
  • Что Богу угодно, то и пригодно.
  • Что легко приобретается, то легко и теряется!
  • Не бойся ничего, кроме греха, и не имей другого страха, кроме страха Божьего.
  • Христианский дух в народных пословицах еп. Александр (Милеант)
  • Народные пословицы, относящиеся к совести еп. Александр (Милеант)
  • Наставления пословицами и поговорками Амвросий и Антоний Оптинские
  • Как относиться к мудрым народным поговоркам? прот. В. Мордасов
  • Пословицы и поговорки русского народа о книге и знаниях В. Аникин
  • Пословицы русского народа В.И. Даль
  • Русские народные пословицы и притчи И.М. Снегирёв
  • Пословицы и загадки о пьянстве
  • 50 самых распространенных пословиц и поговорок Азбука воспитания
  • Крылатые фразы Ветхого и Нового Завета
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